An annual or biennial herb of arable field margins and bare tracks on calcareous soils, and on open chalk downland. Its seeds are long-lived and this has led to its reappearance following disturbance at some sites. Known as a British plant since , A. It has benefited from conservation management at some sites. WCA Schedule 8.
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An annual or biennial herb of arable field margins and bare tracks on calcareous soils, and on open chalk downland. Its seeds are long-lived and this has led to its reappearance following disturbance at some sites. Known as a British plant since , A. It has benefited from conservation management at some sites. WCA Schedule 8. It is an attractive plant with intense yellow flowers and a strong resinous scent when crushed or trampled. Characteristic habitats include the upper edges of cultivated fields, crumbling banks and track sides, ground disturbed by scrub removal, road works or pipe-laying operations, and the edge of chalk or gravel pits.
Dry sun-baked slopes are favoured, particularly on chalk escarpments. It is a poor competitor, confined to bare ground and the earliest seral stages. It used to be a characteristic member of the flora of temporary arable or fallow fields on the chalk downs of Surrey and Kent. Though it is no longer a typical arable weed, it sometimes still occurs with Filago pyramidata, T.
It may grow on bare chalk or chalky clay, but more typically prefers a thin surface layer of sandy or gravelly drift. Commoner associates include Arenaria serpyllifolia ssp.
The flowering period is unusually long, extending from June to October, depending on whether the seedlings are autumn-, winter- or spring-germinated. Autumn-germinated plants survive the winter as rosettes.
Although frequently thought of as an annual, some robust plants are plainly short-lived perennials with a woody tap-root. There is also evidence that seeds fail to ripen in cold summers Grubb It may owe its survival here at the northern edge of its range to the flexible seed germination strategy, which may be genetically controlled.
This helps to explain its erratic appearances, flowering prolifically after sudden disturbance, and then disappearing again as the vegetation closes. On nature reserves it can be induced to flower annually by shallow ploughing or rotavating. This species has become much less frequent during the past 50 years, partly because of the use of herbicides, but more because of the abandonment of fallow land on chalk slopes, and the spread of coarse grass, scrub and secondary woodland on its downland localities.
It is particularly vulnerable at the outlying parts of its British range in Hampshire and the Chilterns where only a few sites remain; less so on the North Downs in Surrey and Kent where new sites are still being found. Most of the known populations are small, however, and the species now often depends on conservation management to survive.
Exceptionally, a population may number more than 1, plants. The improved level of scrub control and the restocking of some old sites with sheep are hopeful signs, as is the possible prospect of hotter, drier summers.
Outside Britain, A. Its distribution extends eastwards into the Levant and southwards to North Africa. Typically this is a species of open chalk downland habitats in southern England, most often on arable field margins but occasionally in open grassland sites. Where it does occur as an arable weed, it is usually indicative of a site that has escaped the normal intensive farming regime, and it is often associated with other rare species such as Filago pyramidata or Teucrium botrys. This lowland species appears to favour the top end of a south-facing slope, where the soils are more freely draining and warmer, and where there is usually less competition from the crop itself.
The plant benefits from the activity of rabbits in reducing the crop canopy and opening up areas by scraping. In chalk grassland it also colonises areas disturbed by rabbits or human activity. It is vulnerable to cold, wet, prolonged winters which kill off autumn-germinated seedlings. This may help to explain its sporadic appearance in its regular sites. In cold years the seeds fail to ripen Grubb The seed can remain dormant for some years.
This plant is at the northern limit of its range in Britain, and is restricted to south-east England by its requirements for warm calcareous soils. It has declined considerably under the impact of modern intensive farming regimes: it cannot compete effectively in enriched soils and is susceptible to herbicide treatments. In some areas it is now more frequent in disturbed areas, such as places where trees have been uprooted or pipelines laid, than on arable margins.
This species has become so scarce in many of its sites that it is now listed on Schedule 8 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act At some sites it is encouraged by a programme of regular ploughing or scraping of turf.
Found throughout Europe except for the far north, it has declined considerably in northern and western Europe. Its distribution extends eastwards into the Lebanon and Palestine, and southwards into North Africa.
Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the background and nomenclature. Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. A hardcopy can be purchased from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology. Volume 2. Scarce plants in Britain. Wigginton MJ. British Red Data Books. Vascular plants, edn 3.
Skip to main content. Ecology An annual or biennial herb of arable field margins and bare tracks on calcareous soils, and on open chalk downland. Status Native. Trends Known as a British plant since , A. World Distribution European Southern-temperate element. Walker, BSBI. Link to interactive map. Broad Habitats. Light Ellenberg : 7. Moisture Ellenberg : 4. Reaction Ellenberg : 8. Nitrogen Ellenberg : 2. Salt Tolerance Ellenberg : 0. January Mean Temperature Celsius : 3.
July Mean Temperature Celsius : Annual Precipitation mm : Height cm : Perennation - primary Perennial.
Life Form - primary Hemicryptophyte. Woodiness Herbaceous. Clonality - primary Little or no vegetative spread. Count of 10km squares in Great Britain: Count of 10km squares in Ireland: 0.
Count of 10km squares in the Channel Isles: 0. Atlas Change Index: Plantatt Conservation Status Vulnerable. Status in Europe: Not threatened. Ajuga chamaepitys L.
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Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreb.
Ajuga chamaepitys is a species of flowering plant of the family Lamiaceae. Popularly known as yellow bugle or ground-pine ,  the plant has many of the same characteristics and properties as Ajuga reptans. The leaves have an opposite arrangement. It's flowering season is generally in late spring. Ground pine is a plant whose richness has been severely reduced by changes to downland farming.
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