AKUT GASTRIT PDF

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Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Show full item record. Helicobacter pylori H. ─░nsanlarda H. Makrofajlarda H. Fakat, H. Daha sonra, H. Bu da, Lin vd. Ancak, H. The bacteria are rarely eliminated, colonization usually persists throughout life, and infection involves both innate and adaptive immune responses.

It is present in various tissues including epithelial cells, liver, spleen, lymph nodes etc. It is ubiquitously found in plasma as amino acids prochemerin at nanomolar concentrations and becomes activated into various isoforms through proteolytic cleavage by a myriad of serine and cysteine proteases as well as carboxypeptidases. Chemerin promotes both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune response based on the stimuli provided and the disease being investigated.

However, anti-inflammatory response was also observed when chemerin was discarded and in CMKLR1 knockout mice in LPS-induced lung injury and acute viral pneumonia with reduced expression of pro-inflammatory markers.

Macrophages are plastic and heterogenic group of cells, which can polarize according to stimuli and the local microenvironment and shape the local inflammatory status to adapt to outside stimuli. Macrophages can be polarized into the classically activated -M1 type- macrophages and the alternatively activated -M2 type- macrophage subsets. The antimicrobial functions of M1 macrophages are linked to up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOS that generates nitric oxide from L-arginine and substantial production of NO.

They do not produce NO. M2 macrophages can be further divided into subsets based on their cytokine expression profiles; M2a, M2b, and M2c. There are several studies regarding effects of H. In early studies, it has been shown that H. However, alternatively activated M2 macrophages were detected in human gastric biopsy specimens from H.

Also, upon H. Furthermore, cytokines secreted from innate immune cells, antigen presentation from macrophages and dendritic cells and changes in the microenvironment, also activates the adaptive immune response against H. Macrophage mediated pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 response was observed as the pre-dominant adaptive response against H. ChemRdependent anti- inflammatory and protective effects of chemerin was found in mice, whereas in humans LPS, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma stimulation increased ChemR23 expression in monocytes and macrophages which is associated with chronic and systemic inflammation.

Macrophages may also exert pro- or anti-inflammatory response to different chemerin isoforms. Chemerin was observed to suppress M2 macrophage polarization with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine profile in DSS induced colitis model in vivo and in vitro.

Another study found increased chemerin expression on M1 macrophages with distinct IL expression, explaining the inflammatory effect of chemerin on M1 macrophages. Marked expression of chemerin was shown to be produced by intestinal epithelial cells IECS which is involved in the continuous recruitment of macrophage precursors to week fetal intestine and boosted the host defence mechanism and mucosal immunity in neonates.

Many studies work on the effects of H. However, no studies have yet investigated the effect of chemerin on the polarization status of macrophages in H.

It is known from the literature that H. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of both chemerin and H. It was known from the literature that epithelial cells secrete chemerin. Conventional PCR results revealed expression of chemerin in different levels by these cell lines. Next we evaluated the effect of H.

The H. After 24 hours, the expression level of chemerin reduced. No significant expression was observed on MKN45 cell line. Next, we assess if chemerin protein expression was also increased along with the mRNA expression upon H. Repeated attempts of western blot optimization experiments failed to show any expected band of chemerin in any treated or untreated groups of any cell line.

To clarify if the lack of detection is real or due to inefficient antibody binding to chemerin, human chemerin was cloned and transfected into HEKT cell line. Western blot was performed using various samples from different cell lines with different treatments and chemerin-expressing HEKT cells. Chemerin was only detected in the whole cell extract of chemerin-transfected HEKT cell lines but not in other samples. As a conclusion, we could detect elavated chemerin in mRNA levels upon H.

Next, we investigated expression of chemerin in gastric biopsy specimens of H. Real-time PCR experiments revealed presence of significantly higher levels of chemerin in ulcer patients. Of note, chemerin mRNA expression in samples from patients with gastritis was not significantly different when compared to control group.

These data was supported by the results obtained from immunohistochemistry analysis performed on gastric tissues of H. Chemerin was shown to be highly expressed in gastric tissues of ulcer patients. We investigated effects of chemerin on the polarization status of macrophages. For that, a monocytic cell line THP-1 was used and PMA phorbol myristate acetate was administered to induce differentiation of monocytes into macrophages.

The differentiated macrophages were then exposed to different stimuli such as LPS and recombinant IL-4 to polarize them into M1 and M2 subtypes respectively, with or without the presence of chemerin.

The presence of macrophage specific markers were used to show the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages. Also, cytokine levels were measured by conventional PCR. Both of them were significantly increased in LPS- treated samples. This disproves the possible effect of chemerin on M1 polarization. IL expression was assessed to detect M2 polarization. IL-4 treatment resulted in elevated IL expression compared to control group and treatment of chemerin along with IL-4 diminished this expression.

This is parallel with the study performed by Lin et al. Finally, we investigated the effect of H. M1 macrophages are known to produce IL in response to bacterial stimulation, this was also observed in a study on mice model stimulated by H.

Therefore our results suggested chemerin may not have a role on effect of H.

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