Brown, Warren. Bellevue, Washington, USA. July 18—22, The approach is based on basic gasket elastic compressibility properties and follows a methodology similar to vessel flaw evaluation to provide guidance for the acceptable depth and size of flange seating surface defects. It will enable independent assessment of the acceptability of defects on a flange facing by inspection personnel without the need for experienced-based judgment for each individual defect by others.
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This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American National Standards. The Standards Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate.
The proposed code or standard was made available for public review and comment that provides an opportunity for additional public input from industry, academia, regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large.
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Users of a code or standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsibility. Participation by federal agency representative s or person s affiliated with industry is not to be interpreted as government or industry endorsement of this code or standard.
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No part of this document may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. The scope of this committee was to develop and maintain standards addressing common issues and technologies related to post-construction activities and to work with other consensus committees in the development of separate, product-specific codes and standards addressing issues encountered after initial construction for equipment and piping covered by Pressure Technology Codes and Standards.
The BPTCS covers non-nuclear boilers, pressure vessels including heat exchangers , piping and piping components, pipelines, and storage tanks. The PCC selects standards to be developed based on identified needs and the availability of volunteers. Other topics are under consideration and may possibly be developed into future guideline documents. The subcommittees were charged with preparing standards dealing with several aspects of the in-service inspection and maintenance of pressure equipment and piping.
If it is determined that repairs are required, guidance on repair proce- dures is provided in the appropriate portion of the Repair of Pressure Equipment and Piping Standard PCC To provide all stakeholders involved in pressure equipment with a guide to identify publications related to pressure equipment integrity, a Guide to Life Cycle Management of Pressure Equipment Integrity has been prepared PTB None of these documents are Codes.
Lang, Sr. Sims, Jr. Antaki, Becht Engineering Co. Batey, The Dow Chemical Co. Inspectors C. Reynolds, Pro-Inspect, Inc. Chaku, Lummus Technology, Inc. Hayman, Consultant S.
Koves, Retired C. Rowley, The Wesley Corp. Lang, FM Global J. Lay, Hytorc K. Oyamada, Delegate C. Leonard, Life Cycle Engineering T. Tahara, Delegate K. Mokhtarian, Consultant C.
Neely, Becht Engineering Co. Neely, Chair, Becht Engineering Co. Milne, Hydratight B. Hayman, Consultant J. Waterland, Virginia Sealing Products, Inc.
The bolted flange joint assembly BFJA guidelines See section F-2 of Appendix F for comments on described in this document apply to pressure-boundary accepting flange joint assembly procedures not currently flanged joints with ring-type gaskets that are entirely listed in these guidelines.
Before assembly is started, clean and examine flange Guidance on troubleshooting BFJAs not providing and fastener contact surfaces as described in this section. Avoid using A BFJA is a complex mechanical device; therefore, carbon steel brushes on stainless steel flanges. One of the activities essential to leak-free per- with flexible graphite filler is to be used as the replace- formance is the joint assembly process.
The guidelines ment gasket. It is face finish see Appendix C and for damage to surface recommended that written procedures, incorporating finish such as scratches, nicks, gouges, and burrs.
Indica- the features of these guidelines that are deemed suitable tions running radially across the facing are of particular to the specific application under consideration, be devel- concern. Refer to Appendix D for guidelines covering oped for use by the joint assemblers. Alternative features recommended limits on gasket contact surface imperfec- and methods for specific applications may be used sub- tions and their locations.
Appendix C provides recom- agent provide, or arrange to have provided, as appro- mended final surface finishes. Notes leak histories or suspect fabrication, it is recommended to check gasket contact surfaces of both joint flanges for 1 Rules for design of bolted flanges with ring-type gaskets are flatness, both radially and circumferentially.
Any fastener with thread dimensions essary when tolerances need to be tight. Appendix D less than the minimum major diameter or the minimum provides flatness tolerance recommendations. Appendix C provides recommended Appendix N provides supplementary information on final surface finishes.
Likewise indicated by uneven wear , etc. Roughness, gouges, and protrusions tapped hole threads. On severely covers repair of damaged tapped hole threads. If sepa- damaged flanges, machining this area may be required, rate washers are scored or cupped from previous use, in which case the minimum acceptable residual flange replace with new through-hardened washers 3 thickness must be considered.
The use of through-hard- surface-hardened washers are not suitable. It results in maximum diameter is recommended when bolt load-control meth- sealing surface contact, maximum opportunity for uni- ods such as torque or tension are deemed necessary see form and design-level gasket loading, and reduced fric- Appendix N. For larger bolt diameters, it is recom- tion between the nut and the flange.
Guidelines for mended that the cost of cleaning, deburring, and recon- aligning flanged joints are provided in Appendix E. When absence of or having made correction for unacceptable coated bolts are used, the remaining corrosion protection gasket sealing surface imperfections and flatness toler- and self-lubricating functions are additional considera- ance deviations, as well as joint alignment considera- tions with respect to continued use or replacement.
See tions see Appendices D and E. One and 7 f. Use of gaskets so refurbished is not considered 3 Thread dies generally do not result in a smooth, as gasket reuse in the context of the first sentence.
For reconditioned surface; therefore, turning bolt threads in other gasket types, experience has clearly shown that a lathe is the preferred method to recondition costly only a new gasket will reliably provide the necessary fasteners. The process will remove thread material; plastic deformation and elastic recovery characteristics therefore, the user is cautioned to ensure the tolerance essential to achieve an effective seal.
However, it is generally recognized for the nuts. These are important considerations when torquing that the use of through-hardened steel washers will improve the methods either manual or hydraulic are used for bolt tightening. See Appen- Flat washers also promote improved load distribution. See Appen- dix M for a suitable through-hardened washer specification dix M for a suitable through-hardened washer purchase specifica- guideline.
See section 12 Target Torque Determination. The root areas are based on coarse-thread series for sizes M27 and smaller, and 3 mm pitch thread series for sizes M30 and larger. These coefficients were selected to make the computed Target Torques consistent with that needed for a Target Prestress of MPa as independently verified by accurate bolt elongation measurements by several users.
See Appendix K for equivalent nut factors. See Appendix K for equivalent nut factor. For second and subsequent tightening by torquing methods, use of lubricants and torque values as specified for noncoated bolts is recommended. Customary Units See section 12 for instructions on how to use this table. Target Torque, ft-lb Nominal Bolt Size, in. The root areas are based on coarse-thread series for sizes 1 in.
These coefficients were selected to make the computed Target Torques consistent with that needed for a Target Prestress of 50 ksi as independently verified by accurate bolt elongation measurements by several users. No described in d should be limited to the second and portion of the gasket should project into the flow path.
When reusing result in stress corrosion cracking or pitting of the flange coated bolts or if lubricant is applied to new or reused surfaces. Do not use tape strips radially across the gasket to coated bolts, the Nut Factor will change and therefore hold it in position. Do not use grease. When reusing coated proved compounds to the gasket or gasket-contact sur- bolts or if lubricant is applied to new or reused coated faces; protect against inadvertent application to these bolts, the Nut Factor will change and therefore the torque surfaces.
If nuts do not hand tighten, check for cause and ing, galvanic corrosion, oxygen auto-ignition, etc. Verify compliance with bolt and nut specifications c Before lubricant is applied to the bolt and nut [materials, diameter, length of bolts, thread pitch, and threads, nuts must run freely by hand past where they nut thickness equal to the nominal bolt diameter heavy will come to rest after tightening.
If nuts will not turn hex series nuts ]. A practice that facilitates joint disassembly the torque increment rounds shown in Table 2 and either see section 15 is to fully engage the nut on one end the companion Table 4 or Table 4.
Alternatives 4 and 5 illustrate alternative group numbering systems and tightening sequences when 8. Guidelines on use of con- small value, thereby resulting in a significant percentage tractors specializing in bolting services are provided in reduction in the post-assembly bolt stress due to normal Appendix G.
This is an Two optional bolt numbering systems that are pre- acceptable and usually required practice.
Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange Joint Assembly
Digital products are restricted to one per purchase. Become a member. The bolted flange joint assembly BFJA guidelines described in this document apply to pressure-boundary flanged joints with ring-type gaskets that are entirely within the circle enclosed by the bolt holes and with no contact outside the circle. By selection of those features suitable to the specific service or need, these guidelines may be used to develop effective joint assembly procedures for the broad range of sizes and service conditions normally encountered in industry. PCC replaces the previous edition, published in These guidelines are unique in the world for addressing issues with the assembly of pressure vessel and piping bolted joints from a standards perspective.