Family : Myrtaceae. Common names: dwarf mountain pine, false ru, shrubby baeckea, weeping coast myrtle English ; moreck ansai Khmer ; gang song Chinese ; djung rahab, junjung atap, udjung atap Indonesian ; chuchur atap, cucuran atap, da eng, rempah gunong Malay ; son hom, son naa, son saai Thai ; choi tren, choi xue thanh hao Vietnamese. The Baeckea frutescens L. The leaves, on an about 1 mm long petiole, are simple, opposite, grouped at the nodes, linear with pointed apex, mm long and about 0,8 mm broad, grooved above, dotted by oileiferous glands below, of green or green-grey colour. Solitary flowers at the axil of the leaves, bisexual, of mm of diameter, campanulate calyx with 5 triangular lobes with pointed apex, 5 roundish unguiculate petals petals with long narrow base similar to a stem , white, 1,5 mm long and ,8 mm broad, and stamina. The fruits are dehiscent capsules of mm of diameter containing tiny angular seeds.
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Baeckea frutescens is a natural remedy recorded to be used in curing various health conditions. In Peninsular Malaysia, B. To our knowledge, there is only limited published literature on B. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts were evaluated against two lung carcinoma cell lines with varying molecular characteristics using the MTT [3- 4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl -2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay.
Lastly the toxicity of the crude methanol extract was evaluated using the acute oral toxicity experiment. The hexane extract displayed a mild cytotoxic effect on both A and NCI-H human lung carcinoma cell lines.
The findings in the present study suggest B. Alternative therapy has been extensively used throughout time in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. Over the past twenty years, traditional medicine has been gaining widespread attention among the general public as well as researchers due to the fact that they are natural and readily accessible [ 1 ].
The medicinal plants not only provide a wide range of vitamins and nutrients to the human diet, but also possess chemical compounds which might have the potential to be used as therapeutic agents. It can be said that natural products do play a crucial role in development of drugs which will lead towards the treatment and prevention of various illnesses [ 2 ].
Baeckea frutescens , which is found in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and the coastal areas of southern China and Australia, is claimed to possess anti-bacterial, anti-dysentery, anti-pyretic and diuretic activities [ 3 ]. The leaves release an aromatic fragrance when crushed; the flowers are minute, solitary or in pairs with white petals [ 4 ]. In Malaysia and Indonesia, B.
The essential oil extracted from this plant is used in the treatment of rheumatism by the locals. An investigation by Fujimoto et al. The phytochemical study conducted by Makino and Fujimoto [ 7 ] reported the three flavanones isolated from B. A later report by Hwang et al. The current study was aimed to investigate the total phenolic content, antioxidant potential, cytotoxic activity and acute oral toxicity of B.
The outcome derived from this research will provide a strong foundation for further in depth studies to be performed using B. The fresh leaves of B. Extraction was done using the solvent extraction method, whereby fresh B. Upon setting aside The water layer was freeze-dried to give a brown water extract The concentrations of phenolic compounds in the extract and fractions of B. Triplicates were performed for each sample to ensure reproducibility in the results obtained.
The free radical-scavenging potential of the extracts and its fractions were analysed according to previously reported method of Teoh et al. All assays were performed in triplicates to ensure their reproducibility.
A standard curve was obtained using different concentrations 0—0. A control is the absorbance of the control and A sample is the absorbance of the tested extract. BHA was used as a positive reference standard. The reducing power of B. The absorbance data was then expressed as a percentage of inhibition by comparison to a negative control blank. The assay was carried out in triplicate for each sample and also the positive controls BHA.
The chelating activity of B. EDTA was used as positive reference standard for the experiment. The metal chelating percentage was calculated as follows:. A control is the absorbance of the negative control and A sample is the absorbance of the tested extract. All the experiments were carried out in triplicates to ensure their reproducibility. The modified method of Murugan and Iyer [ 11 ] was used to test the bleaching ability of B.
Methanol was used as a blank for this experimentation. All assays were performed in triplicates. The following formula was used for that purpose:. The MTT cytotoxicity assay was carried out using similar methods to those previously described by Mosmann [ 12 ]. Briefly, cells were plated at a density of cells per well into a well plate and left to incubate overnight.
The cells were then treated with B. The diluted extracts only contained 0. Cisplatin was used as positive reference standard.
The toxicity study of B. The rats were divided into four groups three treatment groups and one control group. The control group was just treated with the vehicle, which was 0. A syringe attached to a stainless steel ball-tipped gavage needle was used to orally administer the dosage to the rats. Food was provided to the rats four hours after the treatment. The experiment was repeated twice to ascertain the reproducibility of results.
Phenolic compounds refer to plant substances which possess one or more aromatic ring that bears one or more hydroxyl substituents and, this characteristic gives phenolic compounds the potential quench free radicals, thus making them good antioxidants. There was a wide range of phenolic concentrations present in the methanolic crude extract of B. The water extract presented the lowest phenolic content among all the tested extracts.
The results indicated that most of the phenols were present in the crude methanol extract and least in the water extract of B. According to Murugan and Iyer [ 14 ], molecules such as flavonoids and phenols are generally more soluble in methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate.
The current result could also be attributed to the fractionation process where different phenols present in methanol extract were then separated into different solvents based on their solubility. Most antioxidant assays are only able to measure a single mechanism or pathway as opposed to the complexity of interactions between antioxidants in vivo.
In order to bypass this shortcoming, four simple, fast and reliable biochemical assays i. The ability of extracts to scavenge free radicals is related to hydrogen atoms or electron donation capabilities and the conformations of the antioxidant compounds [ 15 ].
The lower the EC 50 values presented, the higher the radical scavenging ability of the extract. The blank control was used as a reference point to determine the effectiveness of the samples in scavenging the radicals by electron transfer. The scavenging effects of B. As mentioned earlier, molecules such as flavonoids and phenols are generally more soluble in methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate.
Taking this point together with the generally accepted statement that the total phenolic content usually correlates with other electron transfer based assay, we are able to derive a possible explanation as to the relatively good scavenging activity exhibited by the ethyl acetate fraction and methanol extract of the plant. The antioxidant capacity of extracts in DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and metal chelating assay.
The reducing power assay together with DPPH free radical scavenging assay are common biochemical assays used to assess the direct involvement of extracts in enhancing the primary antioxidant activity.
In the reducing power assay, the reducing power capabilities of B. The higher the level of reductive capability that is possessed by the tested extract, the higher the absorbance value due to a larger number of Prussian blue colour complexes formed.
The absorbance value was converted to percentage of reducing capabilities and the EC 50 value was derived to obtain a better comparison between the tested extracts. The lower the EC 50 values presented, the higher the reducing power of the extract.
The result in the reducing power assay was consistent with those obtained in the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Since both the DPPH scavenging assay and reducing power assay are based on the electron transfer principles, it is not surprising that similar trends were observed in both studies.
The presence of phenolic compounds in methanol and the ethyl acetate extracts could be responsible for their radical scavenging and reducing capabilities. As for the water fraction, it most likely contains other water soluble antioxidant Vitamin C, aromatic amines, Cu I , Fe II and ascorbic acid to name a few examples. As antioxidant activities may be attributed to more than one mechanism, the ability of metal ion chelation of B.
Metal ion chelation has an indirect antioxidant effect as oxidative damages may be promoted by certain transition metals such as iron and copper, and such oxidative reaction which occurs in vivo is involved in development of certain neurodegenerative diseases [ 16 , 17 ].
The metal chelating assay quantifies the capability of the test samples in binding to oxidation promoting ferrous ion. This reaction will determine the ability of the extract to function as a secondary antioxidant through the prevention in forming of free radicals. On the other hand, ethyl acetate showed the weakest metal chelating ability with an EC 50 value of 0.
The strong ion chelating capacity of water extract could be explained based on previous reports which suggested water-soluble compounds such as polysaccharides do have capabilities to chelate metal ions in an approach similar to phenols [ 18 ].
The previous study by Wang et al. The antioxidant capabilities of B. A high absorbance value can be translated to a high antioxidant capacity. The assay was done in the presence of increasing concentrations of extracts under evaluation across a fixed period of time.
At the highest tested concentration of extracts 0. This indicates that when using different methods, the same antioxidants may yield significantly different activity depending upon various mechanisms of antioxidant action [ 19 , 20 ]. Generally, antioxidant activity depends on the composition of the extracts and the assay methods [ 20 ]. The MTT assay was conducted in order to assess the cytotoxic activity of B. The A cell line has a functional wild type p 53 expression while NCI-H cell line is p 53 deficient [ 21 ].
By means of using these two cell lines, the role of the extracts in causing cell death through the p 53 gene can be assessed. The current study focused on lung cancer cell lines as B. Previous study by Fuijmoto et al. Among all extracts, the hexane extract displayed the strongest cytotoxic activity with an IC 50 of The hexane extract seems to have a greater effect against the H p53 deficient compared to the A cells functional p53 gene.
This could be an indication that the tumour suppressor gene has no or minimal involvement in the mechanism of cell death induced by the hexane extract.
August 7, by typicalgardener. Ta da …! But gran would have known and she would have bought one too. She loved bonsais and the baeckea frutescens makes a beautiful specimen. They were all tagged between rm at the first stall. Intimidating prices. Then came the whopper at stall no.
Baeckea frutescens L. Baeckea chinensis Gaertner , Baeckea cumingiana Schauer , Baeckia cochinchinensis Blume Throughout South-East Asia, the flowers and leaves of B. In Malaysia and Indonesia, it is traditionally associated with health drinks and powders used during childbirth.