The harpsichord concertos , BWV —, are concertos for harpsichord , strings and continuo by Johann Sebastian Bach. There are seven complete concertos for a single harpsichord BWV — , three concertos for two harpsichords BWV — , two concertos for three harpsichords BWV and , and one concerto for four harpsichords BWV Two other concertos include solo harpsichord parts: the concerto BWV , which has solo parts for harpsichord, violin and flute, and Brandenburg Concerto No. In addition, there is a nine-bar concerto fragment for harpsichord BWV which adds an oboe to the strings and continuo. In many cases, only the harpsichord version has survived. They are among the first concertos for keyboard instrument ever written.
|Published (Last):||15 September 2006|
|PDF File Size:||3.97 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||1.17 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Johann Sebastian Bach. Ever since the first biography of Johann Sebastian Bach appeared in , commentators have generally underestimated the importance of his seven surviving keyboard concertos. Johann Nikolaus Forkel, the author of that biography, described the concertos as follows: "Notwithstanding the treasure of art which they contain, they are antiquated as regards their form and their setting in other respects.
In his magisterial study of Bach completed in , Philipp Spitta devotes more attention to the concertos, but in his estimation they still fall short of the soloist vs. Albert Schweitzer comes down much more harshly on the concertos in his biography of the composer, describing them as "arrangements made with quite incredible haste and carelessness.
Karl Geiringer, in his Bach biography, writes that the keyboard concertos whose solo parts were originally written for violin, of which BWV was one, "do not quite reach the high level of the models and accordingly are rarely performed.
Taken as a group, the concertos actually display many forward-looking characteristics alongside their more conservative ones. Perhaps the most obvious of these is that they were among the earliest works for keyboard and orchestra, and certainly the earliest to endure in the repertory today.
True, they lack the combative element, the struggle between soloist and orchestra, that has characterized the concerto genre since Mozart's time, but, in their handling of musical material, they can be surprisingly modern. And none of the seven concertos more nearly approaches what came after them than the D major, BWV Bach composed the D-major Concerto during his period in Leipzig - scholars date it to about because Bach copied all seven of his keyboard concertos out in - when, in addition to his duties at St.
Thomas and the city's other churches, he directed the concerts of the Collegium Musicum at Zimmermann's coffee house. In its new version as a work for keyboard and string orchestra, the concerto was intended for the Collegium , and the solo part may have originally been played by Bach himself, or by one of his sons. Bach's youngest son, Johann Christian, though only three or four at the time of the D-major Concerto's first performance, would later have an important influence on the young Mozart, who arranged three of J.
The D-major Concerto opens with a tripartite A-B-A structure stretched to the point of nearly being a movement in sonata form. In the A section, Bach introduces the essential thematic material of the movement, and he treats this to a series of elaborate variations in the extended B section, which basically functions as a development would in sonata form.
If the return of the A section is viewed as a recapitulation, the foreshadowing of sonata form in the 19th-century sense of sonata form as thematic, rather than harmonic, dialectics here is really remarkable.
The slow movement is the most typically "baroque" of the Concerto's sections. The piano spins out an elegant melody over a chaconne-like bass figure in the strings that Bach varies slightly each time it repeats itself during the course of the movement. The finale is a passepied en rondeau the passepied was a 17th- and 18th-century French court dance, basically a sped-up version of the minuet.
Piano Concerto in D major, BWV 1054
More by Johann Sebastian Bach
Harpsichord Concerto No.3 in D major, BWV 1054 (Bach, Johann Sebastian)