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A novel pulmonary polyomavirus in alpacas Vicugna pacos. Viral metagenomic analysis detected a novel polyomavirus in a 6-month old female alpaca Vicugna pacos euthanized after a diagnosis of disseminated lymphosarcoma. The viral genome was fully sequenced, found to be similar to other polyomaviruses in gene architecture and provisionally named Alpaca polyomavirus or AlPyV.
Viral nucleic acid was detected by PCR in venous blood, spleen, thymus, and lung. In an ISH analysis of 17 alpaca necropsies, 7 had detectable virus within the lung. In animals without pneumonia, probe hybridization was restricted to the nuclei of scattered individual bronchiolar epithelial cells.
Three of the ISH positive alpacas had interstitial pneumonia of unknown origin, and in these animals there was viral nucleic acid detected in bronchiolar epithelium, type II pneumocytes, and alveolar macrophages. The pattern of AlPyV distribution is consistent with a persistent respiratory virus that has a possible role in respiratory disease.
All rights reserved. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca Vicugna pacos fetus. A near full term alpaca Vicugna pacos was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery.
Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta, The alpaca Vicugna pacos as a natural intermediate host of Taenia omissa Cestoda: Taeniidae.
Three metacestodes were collected from the mesentery and the surface of the liver of three adult alpacas Vicugna pacos in a slaughterhouse located in Puno, Peru. Various features of the metacestodes were observed for morphological identification. A molecular diagnosis was performed by PCR-based sequencing of mitochondrial genes of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 cox1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 nad1. All metacestodes were identified as Taenia omissa by morphology and molecular methods The isolates from alpacas showed significant sequence similarity with previously reported isolates of T.
Our report is the first to detect T. Spatial perseveration error by alpacas Vicugna pacos in an A-not-B detour task. Spatial perseveration has been documented for domestic animals such as mules, donkeys, horses and dogs. However, evidence for this spatial cognition behavior among other domestic species is scarce.
The present article used an A-not-B detour task to study the spatial problem-solving abilities of alpacas Vicugna pacos and to identify the perseveration errors, which refers to a tendency to maintain a learned route, despite having another available path. The study tested 51 alpacas , which had to pass through a gap at one end of a barrier in order to reach a reward. After one, two, three or four repeats A trials , the gap was moved to the opposite end of the barrier B trials.
In contrast to what has been found in other domestic animals tested with the same task, the present study did not find clear evidence of spatial perseveration. Individuals' performance in the subsequent B trials, following the change of gap location, suggests no error persistence in alpacas. Results suggest that alpacas are more flexible than other domestic animals tested with this same task, which has important implications in planning proper training for experimental designs or productive purposes.
These results could contribute toward enhancing alpacas ' welfare and our understanding of their cognitive abilities. Anthelmintic resistance in a herd of alpacas Vicugna pacos.
A herd of alpacas was examined because of a history of severe endoparasitism, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and weight loss. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to albendazole, fenbendazole, and doramectin was documented. This report suggests that anthelmintic resistance may be an emerging problem in South American camelids in North America.
Hearing in alpacas Vicugna pacos : audiogram, localization acuity, and use of binaural locus cues. Behavioral audiograms and sound localization abilities were determined for three alpacas Vicugna pacos.
The alpacas were able to localize low-frequency pure tones, indicating that they can use the binaural phase cue, but they were unable to localize pure tones above the frequency of phase ambiguity, thus indicating complete inability to use the binaural intensity-difference cue. In contrast, the alpacas relied on their high-frequency hearing for pinna cues; they could discriminate front-back sound sources using 3-kHz high-pass noise, but not 3-kHz low-pass noise.
These results are compared to those of other hoofed mammals and to mammals more generally. An ontogenetic perspective on symphyseal fusion, occlusion and mandibular loading in alpacas Vicugna pacos. A primary hypothesis for the evolution of mandibular symphyseal fusion in some mammals is that it functions to resist loads incurred during routine mastication.
Anecdotal support for this hypothesis is based on the fact that when the symphysis fuses, it typically does so early during postnatal ontogeny prior to or around the time of weaning. However, little is known about the process of fusion, particularly relative to feeding behaviors and the dynamics of mastication, including occlusion and masticatory loading. In the present study, we investigate the timing and process of symphyseal fusion in alpacas Vicugna pacos in the context of maturation of the oral apparatus and oral behavior.
We also report on in vivo strains from the symphysis and corpus in young alpacas prior to and following full fusion and M 1 occlusion. Results show that fusion begins rostrally by 1 month and is complete by months whereas all deciduous premolars and M 1 come into occlusion by 6 months.
Although symphyseal loading patterns are maintained throughout ontogeny, in young alpacas symphyseal strain magnitudes are low compared with adults but corpus strain magnitudes are comparable to those found in adults.
Reduced symphyseal loading in young individuals is contrary to what might be predicted given that the symphysis is still fusing. When considered in light of the development of occlusion and rumination, strain magnitudes may be necessarily low and reflect an overall delay in the maturation of masticatory dynamics. Innervation and immunohistochemical characteristics of epididymis in Alpaca camelid Vicugna pacos.
Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Alpacas Vicugna pacos are domesticated camelids indigenous to south America and recently also bred in Europe and Italy for their high quality wool. There is little data available regarding the innervation of the male reproductive tract of this species.
In the present study, the distribution of protein gene product 9. Immunopositivity to PGP 9. The results of the present study suggest a role for the innervations in modulate reproductive functions in the alpaca epididymis. The aim of the research was to evaluate two chemical tests for non-invasive pregnancy diagnosis from urine, the Cuboni reaction and the barium chloride test, in donkeys Equus asinus and alpacas Vicugna pacos.
The research was carried out from April to September Urine samples were collected on five private Czech farms from 18 jennies and 12 alpaca females. Urine was collected non-invasively into plastic cups fastened on a telescopic rod, at week intervals.
In total, 60 and 54 urine samples from alpacas and jennies, respectively, were collected. However, no relationship was found between the real reproductive status of alpaca females and results of the Cuboni reaction. It was concluded that the barium chloride test is not suitable for pregnancy diagnosis either in donkeys, due to significant influence of season on the results, or in alpacas , because no relationship between results of the test and the reproductive status of alpaca females was found.
In conclusion, the Cuboni reaction has potential to become a standard pregnancy diagnostic method in donkeys. Volatile fatty acid profile for grass hay or alfalfa hay fed to alpacas Vicugna pacos. The purpose of this study was to determine the diurnal composition and concentration of volatile fatty acids VFA and to determine VFA composition and concentration differences between stomach compartment 1 C1 and caecum of alpacas fed grass and alfalfa hay.
The study was divided into two experiments. The alpacas were slaughtered and the digestive tract collected, divided into sub-tract sections, weighed and digesta sampled for pH, dry matter DM and NDF. Volatile fatty acid composition and concentration were determined on C1 and caecal material. Alpacas were fed the forages as in EXP 1. Composition of VFA is similar to other ruminant species. Hypoosmotic swelling test in alpaca Vicugna pacos spermatozoa recovered the vas deferens. Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama Lama glama and alpaca Vicugna pacos pestivirus isolates.
Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids SACs important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities worldwide where they have been introduced.
These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus, in particular Bovine Viral Diarrhea BVDV , but there is little data available on Pestivirus infections in SACs.
In this study we aimed to detect and identify Pestivirus genotypes and subgroups infecting SACs in both wild and confined environments.
Samples were collected from llamas and 30 alpacas from different areas in the Chilean Altiplano wild animals , and from 22 llamas and 26 alpacas diagnosed as Pestivirus positive from the Metropolitana region in Chile confined animals.
Seroneutralization tests showed titers lower than 2 in all samples from Chilean Altiplano. These samples were also negative to BVDV isolation, indicating that these animals have not been exposed to Pestivirus. Viral sequences were pairwise compared and phylogenetic trees were constructed. In agreement with these results, E2 phylogenetic analysis rendered a similar grouping indicating that all 16 isolates belong to BVDV However, the lower availability of E2 sequences determines the creation of a smaller number of sub-groups than the 5'NCR sequences.
Due to the universal availability of the 5'NCR segment, we propose the classification of these Chilean llamas and. Dentro de los cam?? Su gran capacidad de adaptaci?? El presente trabajo se ha realizado para conocer las c Sarcocystis masoni, n. Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae , and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama Lama glama , guanaco Lama guanicoe and alpaca Vicugna pacos.
Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, Sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas Lama glama and guanacos Lama guanicoe from Argentina and from alpacas Vicugna pacos and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies.
Microscopic sarcocysts of S. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Sarcocysts of S. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly different Sarcocystis species, S.
Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. A total of faecal samples from unweaned alpacas over 3 months of age were collected from 23 herds in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp.
Samples were examined by a flotation technique and the identification of risk factors was assessed by a logistic regression analysis. Five different Eimeria species were identified, being E.
Todos tenemos un conocido que est Al menos esta haciendo algo para buscarselas Por favor apoyalo. Se sostuvo la propuesta de mejorar el costo de la fibra de alpaca pero, sin embargo, actualmente el precio nacional de la libra es de 7 soles, el mismo no cubre los gastos. El tesoro de Los Andes, la mejor calidad de la fibra a nivel mundial y el ser parte de nuestro Escudo Nacional; parece no importarles en las medidas escasas que se vienen tomando en la Emergencia que vivimos.