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I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.

I chose "Virgen de los veranos" and "Parque de diversiones" from the former collection, and "La fiesta brava" from the latter. There are two main focuses in my work; one is the translation of the three short stories into English and the other is the analyses of the stories. In addition, as an aid to placing the stories contextually within the history of Mexican literature, I include a chapter on the development of the Mexican short story.

In this first chapter I provide a survey of the short story's evolution throughout Mexican literary history. I briefly document the roots of the Mexican short story in the pre-Hispanic era and I give an overview of its development throughout the subsequent centuries up to the present times. In the second chapter I explain the general and the specific strategies I employed in translating the stories into English, providing examples wherever possible.

The following three chapters are dedicated to a detailed analysis of each short story; I include discussions of all aspects pertaining to theme, plot, character development, and structure. Pacheco's treatment of time is of particular interest and I deal with this both in the individual analyses and also in the final chapter.

His representation of time is reminiscent of the Aztec cyclical concept of time, in which a belief in repetition is stressed.

In the final chapter I identify the common elements seen throughout the ii three stories and attempt to interpret the messages they impart to the reader.

The author presents a view of humankind largely centered around the opposition, within society and within the natural world, between the dominators and the dominated or the oppressors and the oppressed. His characters, both human and animal, are often representations of both. His stories reflect a belief in the endless repetitiveness of life, and he uses myth and history as the common elements in presenting his ideas and imparting his message to the reader. In the historical overview I cover the beginnings of Mexican literature in pre-Hispanic times, the extensive period of conquest and colonization which produced an abundance of chronicles and historical works, the introduction of foreign influences into Mexican literature, and the development and role of the pamphlet, the newspaper, and the magazine.

I also cover the numerous literary trends and schools of thought infiltrating the genre of the short story from the late 's throughout the nineteenth century, the influence of the Mexican Revolution upon the short story, post-World War II movements in literature, and finally, late twentieth-century trends and themes. In the chapter which discusses the strategies employed in translating the stories from Spanish into English, I deal with the general and the specific problems encountered in each story.

I also treat the broader, more general concerns inherent in the process of translation itself, and within the individual works themselves. In 1 addition, I include examples from the source texts and from my translations when explaining my solutions to individual and specific problems. I devote one chapter each to the analyses of the three short stories chosen for translation.

I analyse each story on an individual basis, discussing such things as the treatment of time, character development, narrators, language, oppositions and contrasts, structural features, the role of the reader, and elements such as religion, violence and nature. I identify and discuss the author's themes in an attempt to elucidate the messages they impart to the reader.

In the final chapter, in addition to identifying and discussing the elements common to all three stories, I also examine the elements common to only two of them. In this way, I tie the stories together, forming a solid basis which I use to explain the messages found within the common themes. The translation of literature is one of the numerous ways in which we attempt, in some small measure, to transcend or to cross the linguistic and cultural boundaries that exist between nations.

By translating a work from one language to another, the information, ideas, imagination, opinions, and messages of the author of the source text are given a much greater, broader, and diverse audience. Translating Mexican literature into English opens up a vista of the Mexican literary and cultural world to the English-speaking reader, allowing an insight, albeit in small measure, into certain attitudes and perspectives of the Mexican people, as observed and represented by individual writers.

Through translation the English-speaking reader can be introduced 2 to the causes and results of political upheaval and struggle, to religious and cultural history and development, to national economic concerns, and to attitudinal changes brought about by these forces.

However, literary translation can only play a small role in fostering a better understanding between diverse cultures and societies. For one thing, this is neither the focus nor the goal of many translations.

We must also recognize the simple fact that literary translation is not an exact science; many words and phrases in one language, and the ideas behind them, can not always be presented with the same force and clarity of meaning in another language. Individual speech patterns, nuances of meaning, poetic imagery, jokes, idiomatic expressions, slang, and swearing are some of the many difficult linguistic features likely to inhibit coherent and meaningful translations.

The three short stories written by Jose Emilio Pacheco that I have selected for translation are important because in them he writes about the ordinary Mexican people, and in doing so he deals with matters and concerns common to all people: religion, politics, money, oppression, violence, war, and self-esteem, all leading toward the larger questions concerned with the nature of life and humankind's progress within organized societies. These translated stories open up a portion of the Mexican world to the English-speaking reader through an exposition of the beliefs and lives of certain characters.

They deal with the long-term effects of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec and Maya peoples. These include the Mexican's two-tiered identity struggle—pre-Hispanic identity vis-a-vis an essentially European view of Mexican society, and the 3 extent to which both are being challenged in contemporary Mexico by the pervading socio-economic influence of the United States. The stories also deal with the effects of war, poverty, and religious strife on ordinary people, and certain universal human characteristics such as greed, insecurity, and dominance.

The bibliography which appears at the end of my work identifies the sources for the information I provide in the chapter dealing with the history of the Mexican short story. The bibliography also lists the dictionaries and resource books I employed while working on the translations. The translation project required many in-depth, focused readings and re-readings of the source texts. A great deal of thought about, and research into the meaning of each word and phrase, helped me to come to a more complete understanding of the stories and their common themes and messages.

I accepted the invitation proffered by the author to become an active reader. As a result, I began to ask many questions about numerous aspects of the stories. This process sometimes led to definite answers, sometimes to speculative possibilities.

In many cases, my questions led to even more questions before I could attempt to answer the original ones. In this way, Pacheco's desire for the reader's active involvement in the creative process will be fulfilled. In he wrote a collection of short stories entitiled La sangre de Medusa, published by Juan Jose Arreola in his collection Cuadernos del Unicornio.

Pacheco's first series of poems, first published in literary magazines then collected in a volume, is called Los elementos de la noche. It was published in and includes all the poetry he produced between and Pacheco's second collection of short stories, El viento distante, was also published in Another collection of poems titled El reposo del fuego.

Jose Emilio Pacheco has had a rich literary career, spanning more than twenty years, and he has produced a great many poems and short stories. His further collections of poetry include: No me preguntes como pasa el tiempo , Iras y no volveras , Islas a la deriva , Aver es nunca jamas , Desde entonces: Poemas , Tarde o temprano , Los trabaios del mar , Fin de siglo , Alta traicion , and Miro la tierra He has published two more collections of short stories: El principio del placer , and Las batallas en el desierto In Pacheco was awarded the National Poetry Prize of Aguascalientes, and in won the Villaurrutia Prize for his narrative works.

He was elected to the Colegio Nacional in In addition to being an acclaimed poet, novelist, and short 5 story writer, Pacheco is a highly-regarded literary critic, essayist, and translator. He has served as editor on the boards of several literary journals, edited several anthologies of Mexican poetry, collaborated on an anthology of poetry with Octavio Paz, and has translated French and American poets into Spanish.

Pacheco has also travelled and lived in other countries and has been a visiting lecturer at universities in Mexico, the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, including the University of British Columbia. Pacheco's poetry and stories are introspective and metaphysical and many of his themes are centered on a cyclical sense of time, presenting humankind as both a destroyer and as a victim of decay within the natural environment and within society.

He presents life as a never-ending repetition of cycles: birth, death, and re-birth, occurring in both humankind and within the natural world. Pacheco employs a wide variety of styles in his poetry as well as in his stories, and the language in his prose is often poetic.

It is by no means unique to Mexican literary history—short stories exist in countless other cultures and have more ancient roots in some countries than in others. But Mexican authors have worked this genre well, especially throughout the twentieth century, and have produced an abundance of short stories. As we trace the development of this genre in Mexico we will see that stories have been presented to their audiences and published in many different ways: from oral and pictorial to pamphlets, newspapers, magazines and collected works.

Equally diverse in the history of the Mexican short story are its content, style, and purpose. One of the reasons for this is the changing tides of literary movements influenced by politics, foreign trends, cultural development and technological growth, the latter having a tremendous effect upon all forms of communication.

But there is another reason for this diversity: a great number of Mexican short story writers are also well-known essayists, poets, novelists, political writers, journalists, and chroniclers.

In many cases they are more renowned for the works they have produced in the other genres than for their short stories. Still another reason for this diversity is the fact that many of the authors throughout the history of Mexican literature have also worked in other professions during their literary careers.

Sometimes this meant 7 that they travelled extensively, enabling them to see life from different perspectives, and sometimes it meant that they were involved in social and political power circles. In pre-Hispanic times the people of such cultures as the Maya, Toltec, Texcocano, Aztec, and Tarasco told each other stories about their ancestors, kings, priests, and heroes. Evidence is scant, but some hieroglyphic and pictorial discoveries, as well as some written works, tend to support this contention.

One of these depicts incidents relative to the history of Montezuma I; the second describes events of the Conquest from the arrival of the Spaniards at Texcoco up to the surrender of Mexico. It is thought that the 'Report' was written about the middle of the sixteenth century; and, according to Chavero, it is an extensive interpretation of some hieroglyphic codex of the ancient Aztecs and was made in conformity with the purest 8 tradition.

These works resulted from the study of ancient drawings and pictorials and from interviews with Indians. Many of these pre-Hispanic stories are concerned with the rise and fall of empires, with creation myths, kings, historical events, and even ordinary family events.

Luis Leal considers Alva Ixtlilxochitl, a descendant of the Acolhua kings of the Texcocano culture and a student at the school of Santa Cruz de Tlaltelolco, the first Mexican short story writer. Although Leal subsequently casts doubts upon the originality of Ixtlilxochitl's work, because of uncertainty concerning his sources, he claims that in Historia Chichimeca and Relaciones c.

Sahagun's Historia general de las cosas de Nueva Espana is filled with myths, legends, stories and traditions of the Aztec peoples, as are Duran's Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espana y Islas de Tierra Firme and Tezozomoc's Cronica mexicana c. There were numerous chroniclers and writers actively involved in the conquest, both inside and outside the clerical orders and armies. Some were Spanish-born, others were first generation Spanish-Americans, or Creoles, and still others were of a mixed Spanish and Indian heritage.

They compiled documents and wrote about the events in which they participated. They set down their observations, collected stories from the Indians, and documented their thoughts during the years of the conquest and colonization of Mexico. There are many accounts of battles, descriptions of the ways people lived in various geographical locations, and chronicles of journeys.

It was during the sixteenth century in New Spain that education and learning really began to grow rapidly. Many institutes of learning were established and fields of study were broadened.

The first educational institute in America was founded by Fray Pedro de Gante It was called the School of San Francisco de Mexico. Two schools for both Spanish and Creole children were established: one at Tiripitio in and another called the Academy of San Pablo in Spanish writers, now living in the New World, contributed to the growing interest in the study of letters and to the production of Mexican literature.

It was also during the colonization period that Spanish language and culture began to mix with the various indigenous languages and cultures. A uniquely Mexican literary culture, different from both the pre-Hispanic and the Spanish cultures, but with elements of both, began to develop.


El viento distante/ The Distant Wind by Jose Emilio Pacheco (2005, Paperback)



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