GUIDE DE L ARCHITECTURE BIOCLIMATIQUE PDF

Global energy savings in office buildings Energy and Buildings - Design of a new single-patch sky and sun simulator Lighting Research and Technology - Lighting energy savings in offices using different control systems and their real consumption Energy and Buildings - Validation of the Belgian single-patch sky and sun simulator Building and Environment - Photometry and colorimetry characterisation of materials in daylighting evaluation tools Building and Environment -

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Global energy savings in office buildings Energy and Buildings - Design of a new single-patch sky and sun simulator Lighting Research and Technology - Lighting energy savings in offices using different control systems and their real consumption Energy and Buildings - Validation of the Belgian single-patch sky and sun simulator Building and Environment - Photometry and colorimetry characterisation of materials in daylighting evaluation tools Building and Environment - Graphical representation of climate-based daylight performance to support architectural design Leukos - An intuitive daylighting performance analysis and optimization approach Building Research and Information - Bodart, A.

Reiter, A. M Bodart, J. Chabaudie, A. De Herde, Guide de l'architecture bioclimatique, cours fondamental : Tome 5. Deneyer, N. Ouvrir le document format Pdf : 9,5 Mb. Daylighting has taken on an important role in sustainable architecture, since it has a major impact on the energy efficiency of a building allowing, first, to reduce the load on artificial lighting and, at the same time, to reduce the internal gains of the buildings.

It is important to point out that it also has a positive effect on human health, wellbeing, visual comfort and performance. In schools, it has been proven that daylighting plays an important role in the learning process and the behavior of the students. The objective of this thesis is to define daylight criteria for the development of daylighting design strategies for classrooms, with the purpose of ensuring the visual comfort of the students.

The specific objectives are: first, defining the standards for the application of the criteria, based on a dynamic daylight metric considering weather data, the different types of skies, seasons of the year and times of the day; second, conceiving, verifying and demonstrating the effectiveness of the developed strategies; and, finally, creating a consultation tool, that serves as a reference for classroom design, allowing for the understanding of light distribution and visual comfort conditions of the students, in a fast and easy way.

A new methodology for the conception of daylighting design strategies of classrooms was obtained, based on four criteria related to visual comfort; these are: the amount of daylighting, daylighting uniformity, presence of glare risk in the field of view and sunlight penetration in the classrooms. Given the dynamics and variability of the light, this is evaluated through new dynamic simulation methods, which take into account the amount of daily and seasonal variations of daylight, combined with weather data.

The evaluation of these criteria, in classrooms, was determined by RADIANCE simulation, where the values are plotted in the temporal and spatial maps in order to evaluate daylight and visual comfort throughout the year.

For these new criteria, two acceptance levels were stated: the adequate one, for all that falls within the expectations and that results in a good design; and the optimal one, for all that provides a high luminous quality environment using daylight effectively. After carrying out the study, we can conclude that the new proposed methodology can be applied to other locations and types of buildings deeming necessary, eventually, to adapt the expected objectives to the different criteria.

A daylight design that complies with the criteria, methods and standards defined in this thesis ensures a high daylight performance and a well daylit environment. Ouvrir le document Pdf. Cauwerts, Influence of presentation modes on visual perceptions of daylit spaces, these de doctorat, UCL, Novembre Virtual renderings are increasingly used in the architectural design process and in lighting quality research to assess the visual appearance of indoor environments.

Thanks to imaging technologies continuously in development to improve the "realism" of these images, pictures can nowadays be presented in various ways. Regrettably, to date, few studies assert that such images replicate the visual appearance perceived in actual daylit environments.

The present research investigated the perceptual equivalence between actual daylit environments and images. Two types of images — photographs and virtual renderings — were studied as well as four modes of presentation — QuickTime virtual reality QTVR panoramas, 2D display, 3D display, and high dynamic range HDR display.

Eight groups of 40 students viewed four daylit corridors and filled in a questionnaire about the appearance of lighting and space elaborated for the study. The corridors were presented in several ways: a first group of participants visited the actual rooms while the other groups visualized, in a lab context, their reproduction in sketches, photographs or virtual renderings.

This research provides some proofs that images can reasonably be used as a surrogate for the real world when studying the appearance of lighting characterized by the perceived brightness, coloration, contrast, distribution, directivity and glare. On the other hand, the study suggests that images poorly reproduce the appearance of space pleasantness and enclosedness were studied.

As a result of the research, we determined precisely the media to use for studying each dimension characterizing the appearance of lighting and space. De Herde, Global Energy savings in offices buildings by the use of daylighting, Energy and Buildings, 34 , The objective of the work was to evaluate the impact of lighting energy savings on global energy consumption in office buildings.

This evaluation comes from an integrated approach combining the daylighting and the thermal aspects. The study presented here is based on simulation results. These simulations allowed us to determine the main parameters playing a rule on lighting consumption. Pour des raisons de copyright, le texte complet n'est pas disponible sur ce site.

Bodart M. The design of a new sky simulator and its construction are described in detail. The simulator, comprising 91 tungsten halogen lamps placed in a hexagonal array, is based on the modelling of one patch of the Tregenza sky hemisphere distribution. This concept allows illuminance measurements from one geometric configuration to be used for every sky model.

The sun simulator, which is also comprised of halogen lamps placed in a hexagonal array, is also described. Parallax error measurement and validation studies show that the sky presents low errors.

The paper includes a review of existing skies and suns. Deneyer, A. De Herde, P. Scale models are frequently used to evaluate daylighting performances of buildings. In order to get accurate results, there are several rules to respect for building these scale models. Some of these rules are universal and others depend on the measurement and observation devices, the type of sky under which the study is carried out and the objectives of the study.

This paper, based on the author's experience and on a literature review, presents rules to respect when building a mock-up for daylighting studies. These rules are illustrated by project examples that were tested under the Belgian artificial skies Single-patch sky and sun simulator, Mirror box and Mechanical sun. Roisin, M. Deneyer, P. D'Herdt, Lighting energy savings in offices using different control systems and their real consumption, Energy and buildings, 40 , This paper compares the potential of lighting energy savings in office rooms by using different control systems, for three locations in Europe and the four main orientations.

The method is based on DAYSIM simulations to perform daylight calculations, on laboratory measurement to evaluate precise system energy consumptions and on the implementation of a new algorithm for simulating a close-loop daylight dimming system. It appears that the control of the electrical power in function of daylight leads to very high savings; they slightly depend on the room orientation and the location. The performances of an occupancy sensor are also tested. The measurements of the energy consumption of the sensors and detectors also permit to conclude that systems with embedded DALI-compatible ballast controllers should be abandoned in favour of a centralized DALI-compatible ballast controller or embedded analogue systems.

Deneyer, V. Gilbert, Validation of the Belgian single-patch sky and sun simulator, Building and Environment, 43 , Artificial lighting; Energy savings; Lighting control; Dimming; Daylight.

The method is based on DAYSIM simulations to perform daylight calculations, on laboratory measurement to evaluate precise system energy consumptions and on the implementation of a new algorithm to simulate a close-loop daylight dimming system. Bodart, R. Deneyer, Photometry and colorimetry characterisation of materials in daylighting evaluation tools, Building and Environment 43 , This paper presents a methodology for evaluating the photometric and colorimetric characteristics of internal building materials, for daylight evaluation.

The assessment of these characteristics is crucial both for modelling materials accurately in daylight simulation tools and for building correct daylight mock-ups.

The essential photometric and colorimetric parameters that influence the reflection of light from and its transmission through building materials are identified and described. Several methods for evaluating these parameters qualitatively and quantitatively are then proposed and discussed. Our new methodology was fused to create a database of materials in a freely accessible web tool which compares full-size materials to scale-model materials in order to help architects and lighting designers choose materials for building daylight scale models.

Kleindienst, M. Bodart, M. Andersen, Graphical representation of climate-based daylight performance to support architectural design, Leukos 5 1 , Many conventional daylighting design tools are limited in that each simulation represents only one time of year and time of day or a single, theoretical overcast sky condition. Since daylight is so variable — due to the movement of the sun, changing seasons, and diverse weather conditions — one moment is hardly representative of the overall quality of the daylighting design, which is why climatebased, dynamic performance metrics like Daylight Autonomy DA and Useful Daylight Illuminance UDI are so needed.

Going one step further, the annual variation in performance condensed to a percentage by DA and UDI is also valuable information, as is the ability to link this data to spatial visualizations and renderings.

Trying to realize this combination of analytical needs using existing tools would become an overly time-consuming and tedious process. The challenge is to provide all information necessary to early design stage decision-making in a manageable form, while retaining the continuity of annual data. Andersen, S. Kleindienst, L. Yi, J. Lee, M. Bodart, B. Cuttler, An intuitive daylighting performance analysis and optimization approach, Building Research and Information 36 6 , The effective integration of daylighting considerations into the design process requires many issues to be addressed simultaneously, such as daily and seasonal variations, illumination, and thermal comfort.

To address the need for early integration into the design process, a new approach called LightSolve has been developed. Its key objectives are to support the design process using a goal-oriented approach based on iterative design improvement suggestions; to provide climate-based annual metrics in a visual and synthesized format; and to relate quantitative and qualitative performance criteria using daylighting analysis data in various forms. This methodology includes the development of a time-segmentation process to represent weather and time in a condensed form, the adaptation of daylight metrics that encompass temporal and spatial considerations, and the creation of an interactive analysis interface to explore design options and design iterations.

This system relies on optimization techniques to generate these suggestions. LightSolve allows the designer to explore other design alternatives that may better fulfil the objectives and to learn about appropriate strategies to resolve daylight or sunlight penetration issues. It offers architects and building engineers support for daylighting design that can be employed interactively within the existing design process.

The choice of glazing is a critical stage in the design of a building. Very often, architects select the glazing at the end of the project, taking into account only aesthetic aspects and building first costs.

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GUIDE DE L ARCHITECTURE BIOCLIMATIQUE PDF

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