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DOI: Purpose: The objective of this research is to analyze the job satisfaction of public servants through career anchors.
As an instrument of collection, we sent questionnaires using the electronic survey method and on paper. Our practical contribution will be in the support to the construction of policies of people management, since the results indicated lower rates of satisfaction with regard to the aspects of promotion and with respect to the relationship with senior management.
There are two perspectives that we need to analyze when studying career: the external and the internal one. Career orientation is made up of individual preferences related to the labor market, which stabilizes and serves as a basis for career decisions. Among the studies undertaken to understand aspects of career decision is that by Edgar Schein, termed as Career Anchors. This concept was defined as the self-perception of talents, values and needs, which combined, become a guide for professional choices.
According to the idealizer, through the experiences of work and life, some individuals can be aware of their career anchor, thus remaining stable and influencing throughout professional life Schein, , , a , b. One of the few studies we found addressing satisfaction was by Coetzee and Schreuder , that addressed the satisfaction with the employability that is not the focus of this research. Considering the studies by Brayfield and Rothe , and Aziri , who recognized job satisfaction to obtain good results in the effectiveness of people management processes, this study set out to answer the question: What is the relationship between job satisfaction of public servants with the career anchors construct, based on the talents, needs, and values of individuals?
From there we developed the study by means of the construction of the theoretical base, opting for the classification of eight career anchors, demonstrating its characteristics as well as the importance of the analysis of job satisfaction in the organizational environment to improve work processes Aziri, Subsequently, we presented the adopted quantitative research methodology, with the application of a questionnaire based on the authors Igbaria and Baroudi and Netemeyer et al.
Finally, after the analysis of the results, we identified the anchors that positively related to job satisfaction. At the end of the study, we made considerations, limitations and proposals for future research to contribute to the theme. The practical contribution of the research is to provide a diagnosis of the degree of job satisfaction of public servants by analyzing aspects such as remuneration, promotion, immediate leadership, senior management and co-workers, and the relationship with career anchors.
From the results, the information we obtained can help in the construction of policies in the areas of competition, personnel training, personnel allocation and career development. As for the theoretical contribution, it provides the expansion of career studies, more specifically in career orientation, where we identified some anchors with a positive relation with job satisfaction.
Many reasons have led employees to change their careers. Among them, there are: the reduction of formal employment, shift in career or work posts, changes in lifestyle, points of view about the future and their relation to work Chanlat, ; Igbaria et al. These career changes in which there is shift from academic training or organization are sought to meet the yearnings that go beyond the work environment, in which career development must be connected to aspects such as self-development, personal and family life Schein, The changes throughout the professional life, according to research data by Rodrigues, Guest, and Budjanovcanin as well as in the studies by Schein a , , , b , show that most people have relatively stable careers guidance, which Schein termed as Career Anchors.
Career anchors had its seminal study in the s, when individuals were interviewed at various points in their careers and their work attitudes were analyzed in the face of professional changes and choices. We identified that, despite varied stories, there was a standardization as to the motives regarding the changes and choices of work Schein, , , , a.
For the construction of the collection instrument, we used the career anchors construct - reduced version by Igbaria and Baroudi Through the questionnaire, we can identify the career anchor of the individual among the eight established by Schein , which can be summarized as follows:.
They want to build their career in their area of expertise, solving complex problems and being recognized by the exercise of their talents.
Their desire to do the tasks in the best way that runs up against the budgetary financial limitations of the organization. They do not look forward to a promotion for general management but rather to be recognized by the level of skill, education and work experience.
Managerial Competence Anchor MC : The individual who possesses this anchor pursues their career towards the top of the organization. For this purpose, they need to prepare themselves with analytical, interpersonal and emotional relationship skills. They desire high levels of responsibility, challenges, integration of employees and opportunities that provide the success of their organization.
As for financial aspects, they want to be well paid and to receive short-term rewards as a bonus for achieving established goals Schein, They have a hard time in an organizational environment because they find it restrictive and invasive of their private lives. Thus, they seek alternatives that give them more freedom and autonomy, and may deny opportunities for financial improvement or promotion, which will remove these desired premises.
The type of work must have clear goals and systems of payments for performance, immediate returns and bonuses, as well as benefits according to their needs Schein, Regarding the remuneration aspects, they prefer to receive predictable and stable values throughout their career and that provides them with retirement benefit packages. The recognition in this professional is tied to their loyalty and to the continuous performance of their tasks that guarantees them stability and maintenance of the job Schein, They cannot stay in traditional organizations for a long time or use them for partially financing the construction of their own company Schein, They value the work that enables them to achieve their core values and want to receive a fair payment in return for their contribution Schein, ; Kniveton, Pure Challenge Anchor DP : The individual who possesses this anchor seeks to tackle difficult challenges and problems, regardless of the type.
Their preparation is in proving for themselves, and for others, their superiority in the competitive business environment Schein, Lifestyle Anchor EV : The individual who possesses this anchor seeks in their professional life to reconcile their personal and professional life. Flexibility, part time work, layoffs and leave are important benefits in the decisions of the professional choices Schein, ; Igbaria et al.
While Schein a established in his studies that each individual has only one career anchor, Feldman and Bolino propose that people may have primary and secondary career anchors. Moreover, because of the many layoffs and the need to find out about their next career choices Schein a affirms the importance of the knowledge about anchors in career development. One of the objectives of Schein a to stimulate self-knowledge of talents, needs and values through career anchors is to provide the individuals to make the most congruent professional choices and thus bring positive reflexes to job satisfaction.
In contemporary companies, we find workers with protean attitudes in search of satisfying their desires and needs. Job satisfaction has gained space in organizational environments because it generates effects related to productivity, motivation, loyalty, productivity, and business performance Aziri, The definition by Spector for job satisfaction is the way people feel about their job in its various aspects.
For Davis and Newstrom , it is directly related to the favorable feeling or not of the individual with their job. Roberts and Foti identified job satisfaction in people who felt their abilities, experiences and values applied in their organizational environment and that such contributions reverted to opportunities and rewards.
Studies by Sarker, Crossman, and Chinmeteepituck sought to understand the relationship between productivity and permanence in the organization with job satisfaction. As for Clark, Oswald, and Warr , they identified the relationship with demographic variables such as age, gender and race.
It is worth remembering that according to Kong, Wang, and Fu these factors contribute to job satisfaction. Spector warns that organizations should be concerned to treat their employees in a fair and respectful manner, observing human values, since both the influence of external and internal factors can cause job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. At the same time that job satisfaction brings positive results for companies; dissatisfaction generates problems like lack of loyalty, increase of absenteeism, strike and accidents of work Aziri, Amongst the measures to place the individual with better job and organization adjustment are the selection process and adoption of socialization, training and learning policies Kristof-Brown et al.
In the study carried out by Borges , it was identified that the worker in the public sector is more satisfied than those in the private sector in terms of stability; however, with regard to growth and compensation this situation is reversed.
Thus, we can say that public institutions are not exempt from having unsatisfied public servants in their offices; they need to be attentive to the satisfaction of their employees, as it relates to productivity and engagement.
Understanding the factors that explain satisfaction becomes a tool for better managing employee performance in performing their tasks Taylor, In this regard, we chose a study of job satisfaction that analyzed five dimensions: pay, progression, immediate leadership, senior management and co-workers Netemeyer et al.
While some companies expect their employees to take responsibility for their careers, others feel it is already enough to offer training courses, learning practices and career development at work. Gerpott, Domsch, and Keller in their study conducted among research and development professionals in Germany, England and the United States, verified the importance of career orientation in relation to job satisfaction.
According to Leong, Rosenberg and Chong , individuals should have higher job satisfaction when the job specialization corresponds to their career anchor.
A tool can also help management to take note of the various career orientations of employees and use to select the employee for the most suitable working position Igbaria et al. The present study analyzed the existence of a relation of job satisfaction with the construct denominated career anchors Schein, a ; b , with it being an instrument of self-analysis based on the values, needs and talents of the individuals to conduct the career choices.
Thus, it emerged the hypotheses of this study that propose to relate career anchors with job satisfaction, which follow below:. H1: 1. The Technical Functional Competence Anchors; 2. Managerial Competence; 3. Pure Challenge; 8. Lifestyle is positively related to satisfaction with remuneration. H2: 1. Lifestyle is positively related to satisfaction with promotion.
H3: 1. Lifestyle is positively related to satisfaction with the immediate superior. H4: 1. Lifestyle is positively related to the satisfaction with senior management. H5: 1. Lifestyle is positively related to satisfaction with co-workers.
H6: 1. Lifestyle is positively related to overall satisfaction. In December of , we distributed the questionnaires in one of the campuses and in the period from March to June of , and we distributed them to the other campuses and rectory. We discarded thirty-one questionnaires that respondents did not complete in their entirety.
We based the distributed questionnaire on studies by Igbaria and Baroudi and Netemeyer et al. On the other hand, the assertions regarding job satisfaction included a five-dimensional analysis: compensation, promotion, immediate leadership, senior management, co-workers and an overall satisfaction analysis. We also adopted the Likert scale; however, of 7 points.
We applied the research with public servants of the Institute, with it initially being held in one of the campuses pre-test , and we sent the questionnaire in three formats: by e-mail, electronically and through paper survey method, this being the one that obtained the most return of answers.
The sample for analysis of the relationship between job satisfaction and career anchors was composed only of individuals who presented the identification of a career anchor, i.
The sample of this research was composed of working public servants of all the campuses and the rectory of Ifes. Of the servants that had a career anchor, Pure Challenge was represented by 4. The Managerial Competence anchor had a very low representation in the personnel of the institution, a factor that is worrying for management in the designation of the managerial boards. In another study done in a public institution, developed by Cantarelli et al.
Cantarelli et al. Although not the most representative, the Lifestyle Anchor appears as number 3. This did not come as a surprise since Schein a had predicted this trend, as observed in the studies by Vasconcelos et al. Considering that the establishment plan is divided into two categories with differentiated roles and careers, we chose to analyze it separately in relation to job satisfaction.
Despite changes occurring in the public environment with the aim of bringing labor rules closer to public servants and employees of private enterprise, security and stability are still attractive elements to enter in the Public Administration sector.
Identidade profissional: Como ajustar suas inclinações e suas opções de trabalho