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Pana la ridicarea restrictiilor impuse la nivel national cursurile Fides se desfasoara in intregime online. Aceste cursuri se adreseaza cu precadere oamenilor de afaceri, diplomatilor, cetatenilor straini care lucreaza sau studiaza in Romania. Pentru un necunoscator al limbii se recomanda 5 module a 32 de ore pentru a ajunge la o buna folosire a limbii in situatii concrete curente. Metodologie Programa de predare urmareste programa standard atasata sau se construieste de catre profesor impreuna cu cursantul, in functie de necesitatile acestuia.

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Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Much more than documents. Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers. Start Free Trial Cancel anytime. Document Information click to expand document information Date uploaded Apr 23, Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Flag for Inappropriate Content. Download Now. For Later. Related titles.

Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or buted inany form ar by any means without the written permission of the copyrightowner. NY L www barronseduc. Ubeahinn, consultant. Mumber Younes p. Some of these countries are well known, such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, and Iraq, and others are less known, such as Djibouti and the Comoros. In addition to being the official lan; guage of these countries, Arabic is also the relig ious language of over 1.

Like any other language with a long history that is spoken over a large area, Arabie has many varieties. For the purposes of this book, a major distinction can be made between the literary language, known in Arabic as Fusha and referred to in English as Classical Arabic or Modern Standard Arabic MSA , and the regional dialects, Classical Arabie generally refers to the older farm of the literary language, and MSA to its modern form.

Classical Arabic will not concern us here, since this book is designed for users of Arabic in its modern context. For example, when an Arab man reads a newspaper, he reads MSA, but when he discusses its contents with his friends, the discussion takes place in the regional variety.

While the different dialects differ from one region to another, MSA is virtually the same everywhere. This is one reason why the majority of Arabic books written for foreigners introduce MSA. However, people who learn to speak only MSA will nat be able to use it in conversation; not only will they sound ludicrous, but they will also find it difficult to understand what is being, said to them.

This book, which is intended as a basic introduction to Arabic using simple, practical dialogues as its main linguistic component, presents a colloquial dialect, i. Why Egyptian? Egyptian is the most widely used and understood of all Aral dialects, For one thing, Egyptians constitute between a quarter and a fifth of the total population of the Arab world. In addition, Egypt, in particular Cairo, has for a long time served as an important, probably the most important, culwral center of the Arab world.

More publications come out of Cairo than any other Arab city, and Egyptian movies and soap operas are watched all over the Arab world. Students from many Arab and Muslim countries study at Egyptian universities, and hundreds of thousands of Egyptian teachers, doctors, engincers, and farm workers live all over the Arab world.

In addition to learning to converse ata basic level, you will also learn to read Arabic ata level that will enable you to understand the names of people and places, road signs, restaurant menus, and travel schedules.

Since words will be presented as pronounced in an Egyptian Arabic context, the Egyptian pronunciation will be adopted throughout the book. The alphabet consists of 28 letters, which represent the Arabic consonants and long vowels. A few more symbols are used to indicate the short vowels, the doubling of consonants, the absence of a vowel sound, and the hamza or glottal stop, which will be discussed below.

In English, for example, the letter s is pronounced differently in the words seen, easy, pleasure, and sugar, while the sound s is spelled differently in sit, city, scene, taxi, and massive, English vowels show even more irregularity. Think of the sounds represented by the letter a in do, does, doe, how, and hot, Arabic irregularities are much more limited.

The following table lists the Arabic letters and the sounds they represent using a romanized transliteration system. It will serve as a pronunciation guide throughout the book. Short explanatory notes appear next to these.

If no notes appear, then the transcription symbol represents the typical English pronunciation of the letter given. So, in the second row, the Arabic letter is pronounced the same as the English consonant b used in the transliteration. Rarely pronounced as j Pronouineed like J, but with more friction in the throat Pronounced like the German ch, as in nach. Emphatic s 0. This and the next three capitalized letters are known as the emphatic consonants. Similar to Aamza the glottal stop. See the note on hamza on page 4.

Asin French rin rouge. In these cases it will be written and transcribed as g. More on hamze below. Pronounced as the win June. Pronounced as the ee in deor, Pronounced as the w in way, Pronounced as the ca in meat. Pronounced as the ai in bait. Pronounced as the y in young. The a0 may have any of the following shapes: 5. The rules for choosing the different shapes of the dea are quite complicated, All you need to know at this stage is to recognize these shapes when you see them written and to remember that all of them stand for one sound only.

Reading Exercise Each of the following words includes hamza. First read them, then compare your reading to the answers below. I ui you, masculine, singular m. They contrast with a set of more familiar, non-emphatic consonants. In the preceding alphabet table, they are transliterated in uppercase. The English letters sd, f, and c are pronounced in certain environments in a manner that approximates the Arabic emphatic pronunciation.

The of car has the emphatic pronunciation, and that of car has the non- emphatic, plain one. Putting It Together Unlike English, Arabic is written and read from right to left, Arabic letters are connected to one another to form words. All letters connect to those preceding them, and. The following table shows the different letter shapes. These include the six non-connecting letters and 4b and Js. The first shape is used at the beginning of the word and after non-connecting letters, but not word-finally.

The second is used after a connecting letter inside a word. The third is used word-finally after a connecting letter, The fourth is used word-finally after a non-connecting letter.

The rest 17 letters have two shapes each, one initial and medial both connected and non- connected , and another final. In general, the final shape of a letter includes an additional curve to finish it off. Within each family, letters are generally distinguished by the placement and number of their dots.

In addition to functioning as the long vowel aa, the first letter of the Arabic alphabx as a transitional vowel at the beginnings of words that start with a vowel. In this po: pronounced a, i, or u, depending on the individual word. Copy the same words. The movement in writing the letters is always from right to left and top to bottom, Always remember that all letters connect to those preceding them and all except six connect to those following.

Remember that the letter! Only the three long vowels g , 1, and gare listed as part of the alphabet. Short vowels are not represented regularly as part of the alphabet, but they are sometimes indicated as diacritical marks above or below the letters to help certain groups of readers such as children or foreign learners. In this guide, the romanized transliteration along with the Arabic letters give ample clues to the correct pronunciation, which renders the diacritical marks unnecessary.

Furthermore, the type of Arabic that the user of this book is likely to encounter road signs, names, etc. Tn contexts where the short vowels ate necessary, as in cases involving distinctions of otherwise identical words, the diacrities will be shown. Among these tics, there are three vowels that correspond to the three long vowels in the alphabet table.

The following list includes them as well as the other important diacritical symbols. The letter —s k is used to illustrate the shape, position, and pronunciation of these diacritics. Represents a short vowel that corresponds to. Ski kasra i Represents a short vowel that corresponds to 5.

Represents the doubling of a consonant. Indicates that there is no vowel following the consonant above which it appears. It is written as L or 4, depending on whether the preceding letter is connecting or non-connecting. It is a feminine ending that appears on nouns and adjectives.

Consequently, it is found only in the final position of a word. It is pronounced a, unless the word in which it is found is the first part of a construct phrase; then a 1 appears in the pronunciation.

Thanks to a woman.

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