John G. Kassakian, Martin F. Schlecht and George C. It comprises of basic principles, techniques, circuits and methods that are necessary for various power electronic systems. The book details extensively on not only the theory but also on the practical applications of these systems in the real world.
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Bibliography: p. Includes index. Power electronics. H This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machine or similar means, and storage in data banks. Dataconversion: Briihlsche Universitatsdruckerei, GieBen. Because of the influence which energy issues have on the economy, international relations, national security, and indi- vidual well-being, it is necessary that there exists a reliable, available and accu- rate source of information on energy in the broadest sense.
Since a major form of energy is electrical, this new book series titled Electric Energy Systems and Engineering has been launched to provide such an information base in this im- portant area. The series coverage will include the following areas and their interaction and coordination: generation, transmission, distribution, conversion, storage, utili- zation, economics. Although the series is to include introductory and background volumes,.
The aim of this series is to provide a comprehensive source of information for the developer, planner, or user of electrical energy. It will also serve as a vis- ible and accessible forum for the publication of selected research results and monographs of timely interest. The series is expected to contain introductory level material of a tutorial nature, as well as advanced texts and references for graduate students, engineers and scientists.
The editors hope that this series will fill a gap and find interested readers. John G. The growing demand for controllability and conversion of electric energy has made this area increasingly important, which in turn has resulted in new device, circuit and control developments.
The technology embodied by the name "power electronics" is complex. It consists of both power level and signal level electronics, as well as thermal, mechanical, control, and protection systems. The power circuit, that part of the system actually processing energy, can be thought of as an amplifier around which is placed a closed loop control system. The goal of this book is to provide an easily understood exposition of the principles of power electronics. Common features of systems and their behavior are identified in order to facilitate understanding.
Thyristor converters are distinguished and treated according to their mode of commutation. Circuits for various converters and their controls are presented, along with a description of ancillary circuits such as those required for snubbing and gate drives. Thermal and electrical properties of semiconductor power devices are discussed. The line-converter and converter-load interfaces are examined, leading to some general statements being made about energy transfer.
Application areas are identified and categorized with respect to power and frequency ranges. The many tables presented in the book provide an easily used reference source. This book is designed to provide an overview of power electronics for students as well as practicing engineers. Only a basic knowledge of electrical engineering and mathematics is assumed. The list of references at the end of the book gives a survey of the field as it has developed over time.
Understandably, the majority are cited from German publications. This book was first published in German, and has been translated into Japanese, Spanish, and Hungarian. The author is pleased that an English edition has now been published. XV 1 Introduction and Definitions. The fraction of electrical energy which is switched, controlled, and converted by power electronics is constantly increasing.
Power electronics thus represents an important link between power generation and the load Fig. It is growing in significance as the demand to control and convert electrical energy increases [1. Process computer ' Fig. Power electronics It is useful to distinguish between the power section and the open- and closed- loop control section of a power electronics system. Nowadays, not only in the power section but also in the open- and closed-loop control section, components are becoming predominantly based on mono crystalline semiconductor material, i.
Using similar types of components achieves the compatibility between the subassemblies, equipment, and installation of power electronics essential for reliability. I Fig. Origin of types of rectifier valves rectifiers with ratings in the megawatt range [1, 2]. At the beginning of this century the simplest converters i.
In the course of further developments new spheres of application were found, namely, the supply of medium power dc loads so-called light and power works via rectifier substations and urban dc supply systems as well as the operation of dc railways and electrolytic plants.
DC railway applications included urban tram- ways, overhead and underground railways, and suburban railways for which dc motors are employed on account of their good starting characteristics and ease of control.
In a number of european countries electrification of the long-distance railways was also carried out with dc supply systems fed by mercury-arc rectifiers. Figure 1.
Converter valves are functional elements which are cyclically changed between electrically conducting and non-conducting states. Genuine valves have a directional conductivity produced under certain conditions in a vacuum, in gases or in semiconductors. The types of construction of genuine converter valves are listed in Fig.
These are high-vacuum valves, gas-discharge valves, and semiconductor valves. Semiconductor valves presently dominante in power electronics. Development History 3 High-vacuum valves with hot cathode Gas-discharge valves Inert gas-filled valves with hot cathode and filled with inert gas Mercury-arc valves with hot cathode and mercury-vapour filling Thyratron with liquid cathode mercury cathode with continuous excitation Excitron with ignitor Ignitron Semiconductor valves Polycrystalline semiconductors Copper oxide rectifiers Selenium rectifiers Monocrystalline semiconductors Semiconductor diodes Thyristors Transistors Fig.
Types of genuine rectifier valves In the case of non-genuine valves which have no directional conductivity a valve action is produced by cyclic actuation of mechanical contacts or similar devices.
Non-genuine valves are therefore the periodic mechanical switches listed at the bottom of Fig. Siemens discovered the Principle of Electrodynamics in and construction of the first direct current dynamo tookplace. Later came the so-called polarity reversers for calling systems in the long-distance telephone service of the Post Office and mechanical choppers to generate alternating voltage from a battery. A special place was gained for about two decades by the contact converter in the field of direct current supply for electrolytic plants.
This works with periodically actuated mechanical contacts synchronously switched by an eccentric shaft in rhythm with the mains frequency. Mercury-jet rectifiers switch cyclically using a rotating mercury jet. The first gas-filled valves with genuine valve characteristics in which the cyclic switching function is performed by electric arc discharges were developed at the beginning of the century.
The first mercury-arc rectifiers were built by P. Cooper- Hewitt in At first, mercury-arc valves with liquid cathode were built as single-bulb or multiple-bulb glass vessels. Soon after P. Cooper-Hewitt and F. Schafer in for which instead of glass, steel tanks which have the advantage of greater mechanical strength and better cooling were used and hence opened the way to higher ratings.
Steel-tank rectifiers were later built either as a welded fabrication with bolted-on cover plate and vacuum pump for the highest currents or as hermetically sealed steel tanks without vacuum pump.
They were cooled either by air or for the higher ratings with water. Mercury-arc valves with liquid cathode handle currents of some A at voltages up to several kY. For high-voltage direct-current transmission special high-reverse-voltage constructions were devel- oped with reverse voltages of up to more than kY. The former are called excitrons and the latter ignitrons. After J. Langmuir had discovered the principle of grid control of an arc discharge in , P. Toulon discovered a method of applying grid control to voltage control in This resulted in the possibility of building controllable rectifiers as well as inverters in which the energy flow is in the reverse direction.
Besides the mercury-arc valves with liquid cathode valves with hot cathode were also developed. These work with either a mercury-vapour filling or a filling of inert gas preferably argon. They are called Thyratrons and handle voltages up to about 15 kV at valve currents below 20 A. With these technically mature gas-discharge valves available converter technology achieved greater technical significance from the end of the twenties onwards.
The mercury-arc valves were mainly employed for the conversion of single-phase and three-phase alternating current into direct current with open or closed-loop control. Considerable technical difficulties arose, however, in the generation of the necessary firing pulses using the components available at that time in the control circuits, particularly in the case of the more extensive converter connections.
The first semiconductor rectifiers were employed around for rectification purposes in the lower power range. These were copper oxide rectifiers at first and soon afterwards selenium rectifiers, the base material of which is a polycrystalline semiconductor.
Selenium rectifiers have been continuously improved and nowadays still have some applications as miniature rectifiers e. The fifties saw the development of semiconductor diodes made from mono crystalline semiconductor material.
ISBN 13: 9780201096897
Principles of Power Electronics
Principles of power electronics / John G. Kassakian, Martin F. Schlecht, George C. Verghese