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Kondratiev became an early leading figure of Soviet economics and promoted the NEP's system of small private free market enterprises in the Soviet Union. Kondratiev's theory that Western capitalist economies have long term toyear cycles of boom followed by depression gained recognition inside and outside the Soviet Union.
Nikolai Dimitrievich Kondratiev was born on 4 March in the Galuevskaya, a village near Vichuga , Kostroma Governorate , into a peasant family of Komi heritage. On 5 October , at the age of 25, he was appointed Deputy Minister of Supply of the last Alexander Kerensky government, which lasted for only a few days. After the revolution, Kondratiev pursued academic research. In , he was appointed to a teaching post at the Agricultural Academy of Peter the Great.
As its first director, he developed it into a large and respected institution with 51 researchers by In , he published his first writing on long cycles. To provide proof that capitalist economies were subject to spontaneous and recurrent depressions and recoveries, Kondratiev did extensive price analysis of goods in the German, British, and French economies.
Among the prices studied were raw materials and output products, interest rates, foreign trade, wages, and bank deposits. In , Kondratiev intervened in the debate about the " Scissors Crisis ", following the general opinion of his colleagues.
In —25, he worked on a five-year plan for the development of Soviet agriculture. In , after publishing his first book, presenting the first tentative version of his theory of major cycles, Kondratiev traveled to England , Germany , Canada and the United States , and visited several universities before returning to Russia. Prosperity years were most common in the capitalist economies during upswing periods.
Agriculture suffered more and long depressions than did industry during price downswings 3. Major technological innovations were conceived in downswing periods but were developed in upswing periods 4. Gold supply increased, and new markets were opened at the beginning of an upswing 5. The most extensive and devastating wars occurred during periods of an upswing  Mager, , p. These conclusions showed that capitalism was sustainable, at the disdain of Communist officials.
This was a primary reason for his execution in A short form was published in in the Review of Economic Statistics and for a time his ideas became popular in the West, until eclipsed by those of John Maynard Keynes.
Kondratiev's economic cycle theory held that there were long cycles of about fifty years. At the beginning of the cycle economies produce high-cost capital goods and infrastructure investments creating new employment and income and demand for consumer goods.
However, after a few decades the expected return on investment falls below the interest rate and people refuse to invest, even as overcapacity in capital goods gives rise to massive layoffs, reducing the demand for consumer goods. Unemployment and a long economic crisis ensue as economies contract.
People and companies save their resources until confidence begins to return and there is an upswing into a new capital formation period, usually characterized by large scale investment in new technologies. He coined the term "Kondratiev Waves" k-waves in respect for Nikolai Kondratiev. Influenced by his trips overseas, he advocated a market -led industrialization strategy emphasizing export of agricultural produce to pay for industrialization, following the Ricardian economics theory of comparative advantage.
He proposed a plan for agriculture and forestry from to However, after the death of Lenin in , Joseph Stalin , who favored complete government control of the economy, took control of the Communist Party.
Kondratiev's influence quickly waned. According to the late Harvard sociologist Carle C. Zimmerman , Kondratiev was reported to Soviet authorities by a member of the University of Minnesota agriculture faculty in after a visit to sociologist Pitirim Sorokin , a fellow Komi :.
Kondratieff sic , an agricultural economist and student of business cycles, visited Minnesota in and stayed with Sorokin. A number of prominent American scientists were pro-communist at the time.
One was a forester at the Ag campus where I had an office. He upbraided me for associating with Sorokin and Kondratieff and told me he was going to send a report about Kondratieff back to Russia. Later I learned that Kondratieff was arrested immediately after returning to Russia from the trip to see American universities.
However, he was not given the final "treatment" until the Stalinist purges of Kondratiev was removed from the directorship of the Institute of Conjuncture in and arrested in July , accused of being a member of a "Peasants Labour Party" a non-existent party invented by the NKVD. Convicted as a " kulak -professor" and sentenced to 8 years in prison, Kondratiev served his sentence, from February onwards, at Suzdal , near Moscow. Although his health deteriorated under poor conditions, Kondratiev continued his research and decided to prepare five new books, as he mentioned in a letter to his wife.
Some of these texts were indeed completed and were published. His last letter was sent to his daughter, Elena Kondratieva, on 31 August In September during Stalin's Great Purge , he was subjected to a second trial, condemned to ten years without the right to correspond with the outside world. However, Kondratiev was executed at the Kommunarka shooting ground by firing squad on the same day the sentence was issued.
Kondratiev was 46 at the time of his execution in In the s, increased interest in business cycles led to the rediscovery of Kondratiev's work, including the first-time publication of a complete English translation of his seminal article "The Long Waves in Economic Life" in the journal Review Fernand Braudel Center in the article was originally published in a German journal in and a partial English translation appeared in the journal The Review of Economic Statistics in This rediscovery of Kondratiev in English-speaking academia led to his theories being extended for the first time beyond economics as, for example, political scientists such as Joshua Goldstein and geographers such as Brian Berry extended the concept of Kondratiev long waves into their own fields.
However, Kondratiev's theory remains controversial because, among other issues, of his ideas about the periodical character of the replacement of basic capital goods and the empirical possibility of coincidence in identifying long waves i.
In , the Soviet Union officially rehabilitated Kondratiev. Wilson in In , on the centenary of his birth, the International Foundation N. Kondratiev was founded at the hands of Russian academics, Elena Kondratieva and Italian economist Giancarlo Pallavicini, at the time the first Western advisor to the Russian government for the reform of the economy, appointed vice president, along with Yurji Jacovetz, and Leonid Abalkin president .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Nikolai Kondratiev. Galuevskaya, Kostroma Governorate , Russian Empire. Cambridge Dictionary. University of Saskatchewan Bookstore. Retrieved 27 October Kondratieff's Mystery. In Kondratieff Waves. Dimensions and Prospects at the Dawn of the 21st Century ed. Volgograd: Uchitel. BPS Books.
KONDRATIEFF ZYKLUS PDF
From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. File information. Structured data. Captions English Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents. Nefiodow : 6.
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