Developing a design supporting tool for function-based engineering design approaches. Engineering design is a complex activity that requires cross-domain knowledge and experience. Many engineering design methodologies have been proposed to describe engineering design and engineering design processes. In order to assist the implementation of these design methodologies, various design representations and design supporting tools are developed along with the methodologies.
|Published (Last):||22 February 2019|
|PDF File Size:||2.98 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||3.76 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
In English the name is typically rendered as "the theory of inventive problem solving ",   and occasionally goes by the English acronym TIPS. Following Altshuller's insight, the theory developed on a foundation of extensive research covering hundreds of thousands of inventions across many different fields to produce a theory which defines generalisable patterns in the nature of inventive solutions and the distinguishing characteristics of the problems that these inventions have overcome.
An important part of the theory has been devoted to revealing patterns of evolution and one of the objectives which has been pursued by leading practitioners of TRIZ has been the development of an algorithmic approach to the invention of new systems , and to the refinement of existing ones.
TRIZ includes a practical methodology , tool sets, a knowledge base , and model-based technology for generating innovative solutions for problem solving. It is useful for problem formulation, system analysis , failure analysis , and patterns of system evolution. There is a general similarity of purposes and methods with the field of pattern language , a cross discipline practice for explicitly describing and sharing holistic patterns of design. TRIZ practitioners apply all these findings in order to create and to improve products, services, and systems.
TRIZ in its classical form was developed by the Soviet inventor and science fiction writer Genrich Altshuller and his associates. His job was to help with the initiation of invention proposals, to rectify and document them, and to prepare applications to the patent office.
During this time he realised that a problem requires an inventive solution if there is an unresolved contradiction in the sense that improving one parameter impacts negatively on another.
He later called these "technical contradictions". His work on what later resulted in TRIZ was interrupted in by his arrest and sentencing to 25 years in the Vorkuta Gulag labor camps. The arrest was partially triggered by letters which he and Raphael Shapiro sent to Stalin , ministers and newspapers about certain decisions made by the Soviet Government, which they believed were erroneous. By , Altshuller had reviewed about 40, patent abstracts in order to find out in what way the innovation had taken place and developed the concept of technical contradictions, the concept of ideality of a system, contradiction matrix, and 40 principles of invention.
In the years that followed he developed the concepts of physical contradictions, SuField analysis structural substance-field analysis , standard solutions, several laws of technical systems evolution , and numerous other theoretical and practical approaches. Altshuller also observed clever and creative people at work: he uncovered patterns in their thinking, and developed thinking tools and techniques to model this "talented thinking".
Altshuller was appointed the head of the lab by the society. From Altshuller switched his attention away from technical TRIZ, and started investigating the development of individual creativity. He also developed a version of TRIZ for children, which was trialled in various schools. Following the end of the cold war , the waves of emigrants from the former Soviet Union brought TRIZ to other countries and drew attention to it overseas.
TRIZ presents a systematic approach for understanding and defining challenging problems: difficult problems require an inventive solution, and TRIZ provides a range of strategies and tools for finding these inventive solutions.
One of the earliest findings of the massive research on which the theory is based is that the vast majority of problems that require inventive solutions typically reflect a need to overcome a dilemma or a trade-off between two contradictory elements.
The central purpose of TRIZ-based analysis is to systematically apply the strategies and tools to find superior solutions that overcome the need for a compromise or trade-off between the two elements. By the early s two decades of research covering hundreds of thousands of patents had confirmed Altshuller's initial insight about the patterns of inventive solutions and one of the first analytical tools was published in the form of 40 inventive principles, which could account for virtually all of those patents that presented truly inventive solutions.
Following this approach the "Conceptual solution" shown in the diagram can be found by defining the contradiction which needs to be resolved and systematically considering which of the 40 principles may be applied to provide a specific solution which will overcome the "contradiction" in the problem at hand, enabling a solution that is closer to the "ultimate ideal result". The combination of all of these concepts together — the analysis of the contradiction, the pursuit of an ideal solution and the search for one or more of the principles which will overcome the contradiction, are the key elements in a process which is designed to help the inventor to engage in the process with purposefulness and focus.
One of the tools which evolved as an extension of the 40 principles was a contradiction matrix  in which the contradictory elements of a problem were categorized according to a list of 39 factors which could impact on each other. The combination of each pairing of these 39 elements is set out in a matrix for example, the weight of a stationary object, the use of energy by a moving object, the ease of repair etc.
Each of the 39 elements is represented down the rows and across the columns as the negatively affected element and based upon the research and analysis of patents: wherever precedent solutions have been found that resolve a conflict between two of the elements, the relevant cells in the matrix typically contain a sub-set of three or four principles that have been applied most frequently in inventive solutions which resolve contradictions between those two elements.
The main objective of the contradiction matrix was to simplify the process of selecting the most appropriate Principle to resolve a specific contradiction.
It was the core of all modifications of ARIZ till But in , after introducing the concept of physical contradictions and creating SuField analysis, Altshuller realized that the contradiction matrix was comparatively an inefficient tool and stopped working on it.
Beginning ARIZc contradiction matrix ceased to be the core of ARIZ and therefore was not a tool for solving inventive problems that Altshuller believed should be pursued. Physical contradictions and separation principles as well as SuField analysis, etc. Despite this, the 40 principles of invention has remained the most popular tool taught in introductory seminars and has consistently attracted the most attention amongst the tens of thousands of individuals who visit TRIZ-focused web sites in a typical month.
ARIZ is an algorithmic approach to finding inventive solutions by identifying and resolving contradictions. This includes the "system of inventive standards solutions" which Altshuller used to replace the 40 principles and contradiction matrix, it consists of SuField modeling and the 76 inventive standards. A number of TRIZ-based computer programs have been developed whose purpose is to provide assistance to engineers and inventors in finding inventive solutions for technological problems.
Some of these programs are also designed to apply another TRIZ methodology whose purpose is to reveal and forecast emergency situations and to anticipate circumstances which could result in undesirable outcomes. One of the important branches of TRIZ is focused on analysing and predicting trends of evolution in the characteristics that existing solutions are likely to develop in successive generations of a system.
Altshuller has shown that at the heart of some inventive problems lie contradictions one of the basic TRIZ concepts between two or more elements, such as, "If we want more acceleration, we need a larger engine; but that will increase the cost of the car," that is, more of something desirable also brings more of something less desirable, or less of something else also desirable.
These are called technical contradictions by Altshuller. He also defined so-called physical or inherent contradictions: More of one thing and less of the same thing may both be desired in the same system. For instance, a higher temperature may be needed to melt a compound more rapidly, but a lower temperature may be needed to achieve a homogeneous mixture. An inventive situation which challenges us to be inventive, might involve several such contradictions.
Conventional solutions typically "trade" one contradictory parameter for another; no special inventiveness is needed for that. Rather, the inventor would develop a creative approach for resolving the contradiction, such as inventing an engine that produces more acceleration without increasing the cost of the engine. Altshuller screened patents in order to find out what kind of contradictions were resolved or dissolved by the invention and the way this had been achieved.
From this he developed a set of 40 inventive principles and later a matrix of contradictions. Columns refer to typical undesired results. Each matrix cell points to principles that have been most frequently used in patents in order to resolve the contradiction. For instance, Dolgashev mentions the following contradiction: increasing accuracy of measurement of machined balls while avoiding the use of expensive microscopes and elaborate control equipment.
The matrix cell in row "accuracy of measurement" and column "complexity of control" points to several principles, among them the Copying Principle, which states, "Use a simple and inexpensive optical copy with a suitable scale instead of an object that is complex, expensive, fragile or inconvenient to operate.
A screen with a grid might provide the required measurement. As mentioned above, Altshuller abandoned this method of defining and solving "technical" contradictions in the mid s and instead used SuField modeling and the 76 inventive standards and a number of other tools included in the algorithm for solving inventive problems, ARIZ.
Altshuller also studied the way technical systems have been developed and improved over time. From this, he discovered several trends so called Laws of Technical Systems Evolution that help engineers predict the most likely improvements that can be made to a given product.
The most important of these laws involves the ideality of a system. One more technique that is frequently used by inventors involves the analysis of substances, fields and other resources that are currently not being used and that can be found within the system or nearby.
TRIZ uses non-standard definitions for substances and fields. Altshuller developed methods to analyze resources; several of his invention principles involve the use of different substances and fields that help resolve contradictions and increase ideality of a technical system. For instance, videotext systems used television signals to transfer data, by taking advantage of the small time segments between TV frames in the signals.
SuField analysis produces a structural model of the initial technological system, exposes its characteristics, and with the help of special laws, transforms the model of the problem.
Through this transformation the structure of the solution that eliminates the shortcomings of the initial problem is revealed. SuField analysis is a special language of formulas with which it is possible to easily describe any technological system in terms of a specific structural model. A model produced in this manner is transformed according to special laws and regularities, thereby revealing the structural solution of the problem. Starting with an updated matrix of contradictions, semantic analysis, subcategories of inventive principles and lists of scientific effects, some new interactive applications are other attempts to simplify the problem formulation phase and the transition from a generic problem to a whole set of specific solutions.
See the external links for details. Although TRIZ was developed from the analysis of technical systems, it has been used widely as a method for understanding and solving complex management problems.
Examples include finding additional cost savings for the legal department of a local government body: the inventive solution generated was to generate additional revenue [insert reference to cost-cutting in local government case study].
Case studies on the use of TRIZ are difficult to acquire as many companies believe TRIZ gives them a competitive advantage and are reluctant to publicise their adoption of the method [ citation needed ].
TRIZ is now an obligatory skill set if you want to advance within Samsung". ETRIA is developing a web-based collaborative environment targeting the creation of links between any and all institutions concerned with conceptual questions pertaining to the creation, organization, and efficient processing of innovation knowledge and innovation technologies.
TRIZ is considered as a cross-disciplinary , generic methodology , but it has not previously been presented in terms of logic or any other formal knowledge representation. The Association holds conferences with associated publications. ETRIA has the following goals : [ citation needed ]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Laws of technical systems evolution. Philosophy portal Psychology portal. International Journal of Business Innovation and Research. Retrieved 2 October Real Innovation Network. Archived from the original on 26 September American Journal of Applied Sciences. Archived from the original PDF on 14 December Retrieved 30 September Journal of Cleaner Production. Archived from the original on Retrieved Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 3 October Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 4 October Archived PDF from the original on Manufacturing Engineer.
TRIZ for Engineers.
In English the name is typically rendered as "the theory of inventive problem solving ",   and occasionally goes by the English acronym TIPS. Following Altshuller's insight, the theory developed on a foundation of extensive research covering hundreds of thousands of inventions across many different fields to produce a theory which defines generalisable patterns in the nature of inventive solutions and the distinguishing characteristics of the problems that these inventions have overcome. An important part of the theory has been devoted to revealing patterns of evolution and one of the objectives which has been pursued by leading practitioners of TRIZ has been the development of an algorithmic approach to the invention of new systems , and to the refinement of existing ones. TRIZ includes a practical methodology , tool sets, a knowledge base , and model-based technology for generating innovative solutions for problem solving. It is useful for problem formulation, system analysis , failure analysis , and patterns of system evolution. There is a general similarity of purposes and methods with the field of pattern language , a cross discipline practice for explicitly describing and sharing holistic patterns of design. TRIZ practitioners apply all these findings in order to create and to improve products, services, and systems.
Nobody can use Standards without permission of owners of the copyright — in Russian, in English and etc. Since the initial elaboration of TRIZ it has been clear that a powerful data bank is required which first of all includes typical techniques to eliminate technical contradictions. It has been formed for many years: over inventions have been analyzed and 40 typical techniques have been revealed with over sub-techniques. Physical contradictions PC consitute the kernel of technical contradictions.
However, there are a definable number of graphic models describing this ocean of problems and a definable number of transformed graphic models representing possible solutions. That is the main idea of the Standard Solutions and almost each Standard Solution represent one of such pairs of graphic models. The Standard Solutions are not related to specific areas of technology and help transfer effective solutions from one branch of technology to another. All rights reserved. About Genrich S. System of Standard Solutions. Power of Science - Scientific Effects.