Andalusia moved from 9th to 5th position. Beverly Van Citters, Ph. You can decide to make it visible only to you or to a restricted audience. Can we not relate topics and elaborate meaning on the of relationships and intertwined data? Note the effort of Navarre and the Basque country, since they were only autonomous communities which have increased by seven and three hundredths infore point respectively in The private sector has been least affected, with a fall of 1.
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We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. Although social networks and mobile-related technology are widely accepted by society, mobile payment is not among the most widely used mobile services. In order to analyse the level of acceptance of this technology, as well as the factors that determine its use by the consumers, we have introduced a modification of the classical technological acceptance model, including risk as a variable—given its relevance in the field.
The empirical results show a particular support for the effects of external influences, of usefulness and, to a lesser extent, of risk. The fast adoption of mobile technology and virtual social networks VSN as key parts of the New Information and Communications Technologies NICTs in our society in recent years has had repercussions in terms of profitability, productivity, competitiveness and economic growth, both at the company level and the national level in some countries Dehning and Stratopoulos ; Lafuente ; Cotec Foundation These data result in In percentage terms, there has been an increase of Today, mobile communications are being driven by different factors Buellingen and Woerter : first of all, the social trends that determine the ways of communication in the private and public sphere, as well as the possibility to personalize services; second, the technology transfer, which enables not only voice transmission but also access to Internet protocols, encouraging market growth, competition and international competition between companies; lastly, the economic factors such as cost reduction and price adjustment, which increase the use of this type of mechanisms.
This figure reaches According to this report and Sanz-Blas et al. In the present case, we will analyse a mobile payment system which uses the SMS as a confirmation of the transaction completed. Our research is structured around six sections. Following this introduction, we will analyse the existing payment systems establishing the ones that are used more commonly. The new payment systems are a result of ICT developments in the field of economic transactions between companies and their customers.
In particular, they have emerged as a way of solving certain problems related to cash handling Tamayo , such as: 1 the need to reduce the cost of money and existing payment systems; 2 ensuring flexibility for minor purchases and instant payments; 3 increasing security and protection against fraud and other forms of crime; 4 the appearance of e-commerce on the Internet and online payments.
According to a Report by B2C Electronic Commerce of the National Observatory of the Telecommunications and Information Society , the main payment tool for online purchases in Spain is by credit card Although these systems are not very widespread at the moment, they will become important rivals to traditional payment systems.
Therefore, it consists mainly in the completion of payments and transactions between two parties, in a fast, convenient, safe and simple manner, at any time and from any place through a mobile terminal.
This payment system presents several advantages for companies and users when compared to alternative payment systems in e-commerce point of sale. Significant advantages for companies and vendors include among others : increased versatility, considering the large number of existing mobile phones, faster transactions, greater convenience, time-saving, and lower costs lower discount rates , etc. Mobile payments can be classified according to three main criteria: the type of service, the technology used and the purpose Innopay Regarding the type of service, the most usual ones are mobile ticketing for shows, mobile parking, mobile remittances and mobile payment at the point of sale.
Finally, it is also possible to classify the tools depending on the purpose. Therefore, m - payment refers to the completion of payment for a given purchase; the m - order manages mobile purchase orders; m - banking refers to the access to electronic banking on the mobile phone; m - delivery or delivery on the mobile phone of the purchased services; and m - contract or mobile hiring of services. Our research study is focused on a payment system which uses sms as a technology to complete the payment.
Several models have been used so far to measure technology acceptance. In this study, we will use Davis et al. Technology acceptance model Davis et al. This model has been used in many fields to predict the acceptance and use of new technologies such as the Internet Moon and Kim , the electronic commerce Gefen and Straub , the mobile Internet Cheong and Park , the use of online services Chau and Lai , the mobile services Troshani and Rao , the online payments He and Mykytyn , the mobile banking Chung and Kwon , the 3G services Kuo and Yen , the mobile payments Swilley among others.
According to the scientific literature, social image and subjective norms are the two classic variables used in TAMs and its later adaptations Venkatesh and Bala In our research, on the acceptance of a new mobile payment system appearing in virtual social networks, VSN , users may experience a feeling of uncertainty regarding the consequences of use and, therefore, may opt for the possibility of consulting opinions and experiences from other users through social networks, adding social image to subjective norms, and leading to a new second-order factor Del Barrio and Luque Lu et al.
Agarwal and Karahanna ; Venkatesh et al. Therefore, in our VSN environment, there is a conceptual relationship between social image and subjective norms—on the one hand, as a desired social value, and on the other hand, as an influence of the social environment of those who use the new payment system. For this reason, we propose the following research questions:. External influences have a positive effect on the perceived usefulness of the new mobile payment system.
Apart from the classic relationships, we have detected the theoretical existence of a relationship between social image and intention Venkatesh et al. External influences have a positive effect on the intention to use the new mobile payment system. On the basis of this approach, we propose the following hypotheses:. The ease of use of the proposed mobile payment system has a positive effect on its perceived usefulness. Various researches have demonstrated how usefulness is directly related to attitude, as well as the intention of use.
Along these lines, there is significant research on the use of social networks Hossain and de Silva , Travel 2. We therefore propose the following hypotheses:. Perceived usefulness has a positive effect on the intention to use of the proposed mobile payment system.
On a different note, the relationship between attitude towards technological innovation and the intention of use has been empirically supported by research in different fields of study, such as using an information system Bhattacherjee and Premkumar , the intention of online auctions Huang et al.
We therefore propose the following hypothesis:. Finally, as mentioned previously, different research studies have revealed that the perceived risk has a negative influence on attitude Teo and Liu ; Hsu et al. Miyazaki and Fernandez state that the online purchase rate is negatively related to risk perception. Considering these circumstances, we propose the following hypotheses:. The final proposed model is summarized in Fig.
Our research involved a national panel of Internet users with profiles on social networks that navigate through an experimental scenario of a Facebook profile, where they watch a video that explains the proposed new payment system. The payment system is called Zong, which permits the purchase of multiple physical and online content using a mobile device, through a very simple procedure that allows to process payment for purchases in different formats Internet, social networks, television and even POS.
Its highest level of activity is among the payment systems on Facebook and online games platforms, as well as on shopping websites.
In the present case, we have selected a real web environment adapted to the requisites of our research external links, access to events, etc. To this end, we reprogrammed the Facebook profile concerned and implemented the payment tool in operational condition.
The questionnaire and the scales used to create it are included in Appendix. To verify the suitability of the measurement scales used, we applied various forms of analysis: reliability, validity, exploratory using the program SPSS It could therefore be confirmed that the latent variables adequately explained the observed variables Hair et al. In terms of discriminant validity, we confirmed that the variations were significantly far from zero and that the correlation between each pair of scales was not greater than 0.
Following the recommendations of Hair et al. Once the quality of all the proposed measurement scales was evaluated, we confirmed that all the latent factors together had sufficient discriminant validity; in other words, the diverse factors formulating the model were significantly different, since the discriminant validity between the dimensions of one scale does not guarantee the discriminant validity that the different latent factors should have. For this reason, a Factor Analysis was conducted, including all the measurement scales in order to extract each variation, as well as the correlations between factors and their confidence intervals Fornell and Larcker ; Farrell and Rudd In our case, we confirmed that the factors were not very highly correlated Bagozzi , that no factor had a value of 1 in its confidence interval Anderson and Gerbing and that the correlations between the indicators were less than the roots of the variation extracted from each of the factors taken two by two Fornell and Larcker These results led us to conclude that there was overall discriminant validity between the different latent factors considered.
For the evaluation of the structural model, an analysis of the statistical significance of the model structural loads was carried out. Second, the hypotheses derived from the effect of the ease of use Hypotheses 2, 3 could not be rejected either. Moreover, the relationship between usefulness, attitude and intention in Hypotheses 4 and 5 could not be rejected either.
Social networks and mobile phones are among the significant developments in recent years. In this context, we are currently witnessing a trend of integrating these two technologies. This is precisely why we have analysed the intention towards a new payment system on social networks using the mobile phone as a tool to complete the payment. The variable with the greatest impact on intention was the external influence, formed from social image and subjective norms. This relationship is explained by the online environment where the users perform their activity, since the network itself is the place where communication takes place between people.
Therefore, precisely within that network the users will shape their acceptance of the payment tool. Second, the intention to use is influenced by the usefulness of the mobile payment system. This second element consolidates the considerations of the TAM, but departs from the external influence values. In the third place, attitude also has a significant, direct and positive impact on the intention to use.
Precisely, these feelings or attitudes users show towards the payment tool also influence to some extent their predisposition to use it. One of the most important contributions has been the integration of perceived risk in order to understand, explain and predict consumer acceptance of the mobile payment system. Therefore, from a theoretical perspective, the present model aims to provide a more detailed and comprehensive view of the behavioural intention determinants, by integrating perceived risk into the TAM.
Hence, the need for companies to position themselves not only among their clients, but also among the acquaintances and friends of their clients, in order to encourage sales and payments as much as possible, putting in place fast and efficient payment systems. Likewise, they will need to stimulate positive attitudes towards these payment systems, as well as a proper channelling of their usefulness to improve the intention to use.
Finally, they will need to introduce as many safety measures as necessary to reduce the impact of perceived risk on future behaviours. This document presents a series of limitations that must be debated, and which may lead to future lines of research.
Similarly, sample users participating in the website visits were limited to watch a video and read a text describing the functions of this tool. Based on this viewing, our research has focused on measuring the intention of use, but does not reveal the true behaviour of individuals with the system. Achieving a real interaction with the system requires the use of a mobile device and websites for purchases as part of the system, which would significantly increase the complexity of this study.
A long-term focus would allow us to verify the robustness of the established relationships and factors and, from a temporary perspective, the evolution of the effects of other analysed moderating variables gender, age and experience of users.
As immediate research lines, we can suggest in the first place the inclusion of new variables in the proposed model, such as trust or perceived quality; in the second place, the integration of real-use measurements of the proposed tool and the comparison of results for all the possible means for each tool internet, social networks, TV, etc.
In the third place, in order to give greater external validity to our results, we have considered conducting a comparative study of different payment systems, establishing user categories and profiles for each one, including other technologies that are being considered substitutes for credit card payments also using mobile technology mainly Near Field Communication, or NFC.
Lastly, considering the problems for the sample selection among national citizens, and with the aim of generalising and comparing the results obtained in our research, it would be interesting to conduct the same study in another country or with citizens of different nationalities cross-cultural , in order to observe the extent to which our conclusions are consistent with others and to replicate the study on other payment channels that users might choose for their purchases.
Agarwal, R. MIS Quarterly, 24 4 , — Early and late adopters of IT innovations: Extensions to innovation diffusion theory. Ajzen, I. Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Londres: Prentice Hall International. Google Scholar. Anderson, J.
The impact of risk on the technological acceptance of mobile payment services
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